About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 938306, 8 pages
Research Article

Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

1Human Rights Watch, 350 Fifth Avenve, 34th Floor, New York City, NY 10118, USA
2Human Rights Watch, Neue Promenade 5, 10178 Berlin, Germany

Received 25 July 2012; Revised 14 November 2012; Accepted 14 November 2012

Academic Editor: Edward Y. Lee

Copyright © 2012 Joseph J. Amon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. International Labour Organization, “Convention no. 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour,” (Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention)38 I.L.M., 1207, entered into force November 19, 200, 1999, http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/Youthinaction/C182-Youth-orientated/C182Youth_Convention/lang–en/index.htm.
  2. International Labour Organization, “Recommendation no. R190 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour,” 1999, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:4053989405073714::NO:12100:P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312528:NO.
  3. International Labour Organization and International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), Children in Hazardous Work: What We Know, What We Need to Do, International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–-dgreports/–-dcomm/–-publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf.
  4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Statistical Yearbook, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2010.
  5. T. Ballard, J. Ehlers, E. Freund, M. Auslander, V. Brandt, and W. Halperin, “Green tobacco sickness: occupational nicotine poisoning in tobacco workers,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 384–389, 1995. View at Scopus
  6. M. M. Veiga and R. F. Baker, Protocols for Environmental and Health Assessment of Mercury Released by Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners, GEF/UNDP/UNIDO, Vienna, Austria, 2004, http://www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/Portals/9/Mercury/Documents/ASGM/PROTOCOLS%20FOR%20ENVIRONMENTAL%20ASSESSMENT%20REVISION%2018-FINAL%20BOOK%20sb.pdf.
  7. K. H. Telmer and M. M. Veiga, “World emissions of mercury from small scale artisanal gold mining and the knowledge gaps about them,” in Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements, and Models, N. Pirrone and R. Mason, Eds., Springer, London, UK, 2008.
  8. Human Rights Watch, “‘Hellish work’: exploitation of migrant tobacco workers in Kazakhstan,” 2010, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/07/14/hellish-work-0.
  9. Human Rights Watch, “A poisonous mix: child labor, mercury, and artisanal gold mining in Mali,” 2011, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2011/12/06/poisonous-mix.
  10. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Studies, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009, http://www.cioms.ch/publications/guidelines/1991_texts_of_guidelines.htm.
  11. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Determination of Applicability of Human Research Regulations Guidance: Policy, 2010.
  12. J. J. Amon, S. D. Baral, C. Beyrer, and N. Kass, “Human rights research and ethics review: protecting individuals or protecting the state?” PLoS Medicine, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e1001325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. World Bank, Migration and Remittances in Kazakhstan, 2007, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTKAZAKHSTAN/Country%20Home/21490937/MigrationReportStoryforKZwebsiteEng.pdf.
  14. International Labour Organization and The Center for Study of Public Opinion, Child Labor in Tobacco and Cotton Growing in Kazakhstan, 2006, http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=8150.
  15. R. H. McKnight and H. A. Spiller, “Green tobacco sickness in children and adolescents,” Public Health Reports, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 602–606, 2005. View at Scopus
  16. N. M. Schmitt, J. Schmitt, D. J. Kouimintzis, and W. Kirch, “Health risks in tobacco farm workers—a review of the literature,” Journal of Public Health, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 255–264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan, “On confirming the list of professions in which it is prohibited to hire workers under the age of eighteen years old, and establishing the norms for hauling and moving of heavy loads for workers under the age of eighteen,” Order No. 185-P, 2007.
  18. Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 251, arts. 26 and 179, 2007.
  19. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), adopted November 20, 1989, G.A. Res. 44/25, annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), arts. 28 and 29, entered into force September 2, 1990.
  20. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted December 16, 1966, G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force January 3, 1976.
  21. International Labour Organization, “Convention no. 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour,” (Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention)38 I.L.M., 1207, entered into force November 19, 2000, art. 7, 1999, http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/Youthinaction/C182-Youth-orientated/C182Youth_Convention/lang–en/index.htm.
  22. M. Otañez and S. A. Glantz, “Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming,” Tobacco Control, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 403–411, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. The Guardian, “Child labour: the tobacco industry's smoking gun,” 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2011/sep/14/malawi-child-labour-tobacco-industry.
  24. Philip Morris International, Agricultural Labor Practices (ALP) Program Progress Report, 2012, http://www.pmi.com/eng/media_center/company_statements/documents/PMI_ALP_Progress_Report_2012.pdf.
  25. Human Rights Watch, Letter to the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights Re: First Periodic Review of Kazakhstan, 2010, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/docs/ngos/HRW_Kazakhstan44.doc.
  26. UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, “Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, concluding observations, Kazakhstan,” E/C. 12/KAZ/CO/1, para. 22, 2010, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/cescrs44.htm.
  27. UN News Centre, “Kazakhstan must build on its gains in the fight against contemporary forms of slavery, says UN expert,” 2012, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43160&Cr=slavery&Cr1.
  28. Human Rights Watch, Hellish Work: Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WO-HsllEED4.
  29. S. Bose-O'Reilly, K. M. McCarty, N. Steckling, and B. Lettmeier, “Mercury exposure and children's health,” Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 186–215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Cordier, F. Deplan, L. Mandereau, and D. Hemon, “Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 375–381, 1991. View at Scopus
  31. I. Figà-Talamanca, “Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of women,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 521–531, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Government of Mali, “Ministerial Order No. 09/0151/MTFPRE-SG of 04. 02. 09 completing the list of hazardous labour banned for children under the age of 18,” (≪Arrêté no. 09-0151/MTFPRE SG complétant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants de moins de 18 ans≫), 2009.
  33. MSNBC, “The price of gold: I don't care if I die,” 2011, http://video.msnbc.msn.com/rock-center/45562389.
  34. United States Department of Labor, 2011 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, 2012, https://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/ocft/2011TDA/Mali.pdf.
  35. K. Henne and D. Moseley, “Combating the worst forms of child labor in Bolivia,” Human Rights, American Bar Association, vol. 32, no. 1, 2005.
  36. International Labour Organization, Combating Child Labour in Asia and the Pacific: Progress and Challenges, 2005, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–-asia/–-ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_122_en.pdf.
  37. Human Rights Watch, Turning a Blind Eye: Hazardous Child Labor in El Salvador's Sugarcane Cultivate, 2004, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/06/09/turning-blind-eye-0.
  38. Human Rights Watch, Toxic Tanneries: The Health Repercussions of Bangladesh's Hazaribagh Leather, 2012, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/10/08/toxic-tanneries.
  39. Human Rights Watch, “A heavy price: lead poisoning and gold mining in Nigeria's Zamfara state,” http://www.hrw.org/features/a-heavy-price.
  40. Human Rights Watch, Fields of Peril: Child Labor in US Agriculture, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/05/05/fields-peril-0.
  41. Human Rights Watch, Inside the Home, Outside the Law: Abuse of Child Domestic Workers in Morocco, 2005, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/12/19/inside-home-outside-law-0.
  42. Human Rights Watch, Small Change: Bonded Child Labor in India's Silk Industry, 2003, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/01/22/small-change-0.
  43. Human Rights Watch, Bottom of the Ladder: Exploitation and Abuse of Girl Domestic Workers in Guinea, 2007, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2007/06/14/bottom-ladder-0.
  44. Human Rights Watch, “Off the Backs of the Children”: Forced Begging and Other Abuses Against Talib's in Senegal, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/04/15/backs-children-0.
  45. Human Rights Watch, Workers in the Shadows: Abuse and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers in Indonesia, 2009, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/02/10/workers-shadows.
  46. Human Rights Watch, “They Deceived Us at Every Step”: Abuse of Cambodian Domestic Workers Migrating to Malaysia, 2011, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2011/10/31/they-deceived-us-every-step.
  47. Human Rights Watch, Uzbekistan: End Forced, Child Labor in Cotton Fields, 2012, http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/04/25/uzbekistan-end-forced-child-labor-cotton-fields.
  48. International Labour Organization, “Resolution concerning child labour in the tobacco sector,” in Proceedings of the Tripartite Meeting on the Future of Employment in the Tobacco Sector, February 2003, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–-ed_dialogue/–-sector/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_160860.pdf.
  49. International Labour Organization, “Minors out of mining! Partnership for global action against child labor in small-scale mining,” 2005, http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=2519.
  50. World Health Organization, “Framework convention on tobacco control (WHO FCTC),” adopted by the World Health Assembly, 2003, entered into force February 2005, http://www.who.int/fctc/text_download/en/.
  51. World Health Organization, “Step-by-step instructions for the completion of the reporting instrument of the WHO framework convention on tobacco control (WHO FCTC),” http://www.who.int/fctc/reporting/sbsen.pdf.
  52. World Health Organization, “Economically sustainable alternatives to tobacco growing (in relation to articles 17 and 18 of the WHO framework convention on tobacco control): report by the working group,” FCTC/COP/5/10, 2012, http://apps.who.int/gb/fctc/PDF/cop5/FCTC_COP5_10-en.pdf.
  53. C. Dresler, H. Lando, N. Schneider, and H. Sehgal, “Human rights-based approach to tobacco control,” Tobacco Control, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 208–211, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar