Table 1: Characteristics of studies describing measures of habitual physical activity.

Brand BoysPopulationProtocol
Mean age (range)Children aged ≤5 years ( )Motor disorderReferenceSetting (measurement units)TDCStudy
reference group

Minimoda1710 yr 6 mo (4–16 yr)~2CP1DOContinuous walking, structured activity lap, and stair climbing (steps and meters walked) , 4–16 yr Kuo et al.[23]
205–16 years (−)1CP2Self-paced walking (steps and meters walked) , 3–16 yr Brandes et al. [22, 27]

AMPb201310 yr 6 mo (4–16 yr)~2CP1DOContinuous walking, structured activity lap, and stair climbing (steps and meters walked) , 4–16 yr Kuo et al. [23]

StepWatchc16169 yr 2 mo (5–13 yr)DMDDOSlow/fast self-paced walking (steps) + 3-day HR and pedometer (steps and HR) , 5–13 yr McDonald et al. [25]
2722−(4–18 yr)CP3DOTreadmill walking at different speeds (steps) , age matched Stevens et al. [24]
6030−(2-3 yr)60TDCDOSelf-paced walking (steps)n/a Bjornson et al.
6231−(4-5 yr)62TDCDOSelf-paced walking (steps)n/a[28]

IDEEAd2010−(5–11 yr)TDCDOSelf-paced walking and running (steps)n/a Song et al. [29]
21−(4 yr–10 yr 1 mo)9CP1IC + HRSeries of everyday activities, walking on treadmill, climb staircase (energy expenditure kcal/min) , 5 yr 8 mo–8 yr 6 mo Aviram et al. [26]

aMinimod, Dynaport, McRoberts BV, Hague, Netherlands; bAMP: Activity Monitoring Pod 331, Dynastream Innovations, Alberta, Canada; cStepWatch, Orthocare Innovations, WA, USA, dIDEEA: Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity, Minisun, CA, USA; CP: cerebral palsy; GMFCS: Gross Motor Function Classification System; DMD: Duchenne muscular dystrophy; TDC: typically developing children; DO: direct observation; IC: indirect calorimetry; HR: heart rate monitor; 1GMFCS I–III; 2GMFCS not specified, able to walk; 3GMFCS I–II; (—): not reported.