Table 2: Evidence of criterion or construct validity, reliability and utility.

MeasureUtilityStudy , age (years), disabilityCriterion validityConstruct validityReliability

Cost not available Kuo et al. [23] , 4–16, CPMean difference ± 2SD: ( )–( ) m; ( )–( ) steps; rate of activity detection: 19–97% n/a n/a
Calibration and analysis software , 4–16, TDCMean difference ± 2SD ( )–( ) m; ( )–( ) steps; rate of activity detection for stair ascent and descent 84–100%
MinimodRich data collection (range: 94.1–101.8%)
Brandes et al. [22, 27] , 5–16, CP (range not reported)
Feasible HPA measure (range: 98.5–101.5%)n/an/a
, 3–16, TDC (range: 93–106.7%)
(range: 94.5–106.6%)

AMPCost not available
No calibration
Analysis software
Kuo et al. [23] , 4–16, CPMean difference ± 2SD ( )–( ) m; ( )–(−3.5–13.4) steps; rate of activity detection 85–95% n/a n/a
Only total steps and meters walked
Feasible HPA measure
, 4–16, TDCMean difference ± 2SD ( )–( ) m; ( )–( ) steps; rate of activity detection: 92–100%

Expensive (unit: $500, software: $1500) McDonald et al. [25] , 5–13, DMDAuthors state “no difference between observed and measured”; no statistical measure reported ,
, 5–13, TDC ,n/a
Calibration and analysis software
StepWatch Stevens et al. [24] , 4–18, CPAuthors state “readjusted until all valid step activity recorded”; no statistical measure reportedn/an/a
Rich data collection , 4–18,TDC
Bjornson et al. [28] , 2–5, TDC (2-3yr); (4-5yr)n/an/a
Feasible HPA measure Song et al. [29] , 5–11, TDCWalking: ; Running: ; ( ); measurement error n/an/a

IDEEA Cost not available
Poor battery life (60 hrs)
Poor utility in HPA research
Aviram et al. [26] , 4–10, CP ( ); difference means ( -test): Test-retest
n/a ;
, 5–8, TDC ( ); difference means ( -test): Difference mean:
-test:

CP: cerebral palsy; DMD: Duchenne muscular dystrophy; TDC: typically developing children; AMP: ambulatory monitoring Pod; IDEEA: Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity; n/a: not assessed.