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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 136524, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/136524
Review Article

Pharmacogenomics in Children: Advantages and Challenges of Next Generation Sequencing Applications

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

Received 15 June 2012; Accepted 20 December 2012

Academic Editor: Edward Y. Lee

Copyright © 2013 O. M. Vanakker and A. De Paepe. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pharmacogenetics is considered as a prime example of how personalized medicine nowadays can be put into practice. However, genotyping to guide pharmacological treatment is relatively uncommon in the routine clinical practice. Several reasons can be found why the application of pharmacogenetics is less than initially anticipated, which include the contradictory results obtained for certain variants and the lack of guidelines for clinical implementation. However, more reproducible results are being generated, and efforts have been made to establish working groups focussing on evidence-based clinical guidelines. For another pharmacogenetic hurdle, the speed by which a pharmacogenetic profile for a certain drug can be obtained in an individual patient, there has been a revolution in molecular genetics through the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS), making it possible to sequence a large number of genes up to the complete genome in a single reaction. Besides the enthusiasm due to the tremendous increase of our sequencing capacities, several considerations need to be made regarding quality and interpretation of the sequence data as well as ethical aspects of this technology. This paper will focus on the different NGS applications that may be useful for pharmacogenomics in children and the challenges that they bring on.