- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 763191, 6 pages
Flow Cytometry in the Detection of Neonatal Sepsis
Department of Neonatology, Children’s Hospital, University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Received 12 October 2012; Revised 10 January 2013; Accepted 11 January 2013
Academic Editor: Khalid N. Haque
Copyright © 2013 Volker N. Umlauf et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- B. J. Stoll, N. I. Hansen, P. J. Sánchez, et al., “Early onset neonatal sepsis: the burden of group B Streptococcal and E. coli disease continues,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 817–826, 2011.
- A. Jaiswal, S. Murki, P. Gaddam, and A. Reddy, “Early neonatal morbidities in late preterm infants,” Indian Pediatrics, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 607–611, 2011.
- B. J. Stoll, N. I. Hansen, R. D. Higgins et al., “Very low birth weight preterm infants with early onset neonatal sepsis: the predominance of Gram-negative infections continues in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 2002-2003,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 635–639, 2005.
- L. Maródi, “Innate cellular immune responses in newborns,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 118, no. 2-3, pp. 137–144, 2006.
- C. Gille, T. W. Orlikowsky, B. Spring, et al., “Monocytes derived from humanized neonatal NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null) mice are phenotypically immature and exhibit functional impairments,” Human Immunology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 346–354, 2012.
- E. Hotoura, V. Giapros, A. Kostoula, P. Spirou, and S. Andronikou, “Tracking changes of lymphocyte subsets and pre-inflammatory mediators in full-term neonates with suspected or documented infection,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 2011.
- C. Gille, A. Leiber, I. Mundle et al., “Phagocytosis and postphagocytic reaction of cord blood and adult blood monocyte after infection with green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli and group B Streptococci,” Cytometry B, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 271–284, 2009.
- U. Hallwirth, G. Pomberger, A. Pollak, E. Roth, and A. Spittler, “Monocyte switch in neonates: high phagocytic capacity and low HLA-DR expression in VLBWI are inverted during gestational aging,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 513–516, 2004.
- T. Strunk, P. Temming, U. Gembruch, I. Reiss, P. Bucsky, and C. Schultz, “Differential maturation of the innate immune response in human fetuses,” Pediatric Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 219–226, 2004.
- C. Schultz, C. Rott, P. Temming, P. Schlenke, J. C. Möller, and P. Bucsky, “Enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 synthesis in term and preterm infants,” Pediatric Research, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 317–322, 2002.
- A. Leviton, T. M. O’Shea, F. J. Bednarek, et al., “Systemic responses of preterm newborns with presumed or documented bacteraemia,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 355–359, 2012.
- W. A. Luce, T. M. Hoffman, and J. A. Bauer, “Bench-to-bedside review: developmental influences on the mechanisms, treatment and outcomes of cardiovascular dysfunction in neonatal versus adult sepsis,” Critical Care, vol. 11, no. 5, article 228, 2007.
- M. Gantert, J. V. Been, A. W. D. Gavilanes, et al., “Chorioamnionitis: a multiorgan disease of the fetus?” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 30, supplement, pp. S21–S30, 2010.
- D. Payen, V. Faivre, A. C. Lukaszewicz, F. Villa, and P. Goldberg, “Expression of monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR in relation with sepsis severity and plasma mediators,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 484–493, 2009.
- A. Takala, I. Nupponen, M. L. Kylänpää-Bäck, and H. Repo, “Markers of inflammation in sepsis,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 34, no. 7-8, pp. 614–623, 2002.
- C. Gille, B. Spring, L. J. Tewes et al., “Diminished response to interleukin-10 and reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages,” Pediatric Research, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 152–157, 2006.
- Y. K. Choo, H. S. Cho, I. B. Seo, and H. S. Lee, “Comparison of the accuracy of neutrophil CD64 and C-reactive protein as a single test for the early detection of neonatal sepsis,” Korean Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 11, 2012.
- P. C. Ng, K. Li, R. P. O. Wong, K. M. Chui, E. Wong, and T. F. Fok, “Neutrophil CD64 expression: a sensitive diagnostic marker for late-onset nosocomial infection in very low birthweight infants,” Pediatric Research, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2002.
- C. Gille, F. Steffen, K. Lauber et al., “Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils is diminished in cord blood monocytes and does not lead to reduced IL-8 production,” Pediatric Research, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 507–512, 2009.
- O. Dammann, D. Ferriero, and P. Gressens, “Neonatal encephalopathy or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy? Appropriate terminology matters,” Pediatric Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 1–2, 2011.
- P. C. Ng, G. Li, K. M. Chui et al., “Neutrophil CD64 is a sensitive diagnostic marker for early-onset neonatal infection,” Pediatric Research, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 796–803, 2004.
- I. Streimish, M. Bizzarro, V. Northrup, et al., “Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker in neonatal sepsis,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 777–781, 2012.
- I. Nupponen, S. Andersson, A. L. Järvenpää, H. Kautiainen, and H. Repo, “Neutrophil CD11b expression and circulating interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers for early-onset neonatal sepsis,” Pediatrics, vol. 108, no. 1, p. E12, 2001.
- V. Bhandari, C. Wang, C. Rinder, and H. Rinder, “Hematologic profile of sepsis in neonates: neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker,” Pediatrics, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 129–134, 2008.
- M. Adib, V. Ostadi, F. Navaei et al., “Evaluation of CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils for early detection of neonatal sepsis,” Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 93–96, 2007.
- Y. B. Cui, L. Z. Du, Y. Z. Chen, Y. B. Yu, F. M. Wang, and Q. Q. Mao, “Expression of neutrophil adhesion molecule CD11b as an early diagnostic marker for neonatal sepsis,” Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 348–351, 2003.
- W. E. Benitz, “Adjunct laboratory tests in the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 421–438, 2010.
- E. Siewert, W. Müller-Esterl, R. Starr, P. C. Heinrich, and F. Schaper, “Different protein turnover of interleukin-6-type cytokine signalling components,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 265, no. 1, pp. 251–257, 1999.
- C. Buck, J. Bundschu, H. Gallati, P. Bartmann, and F. Pohlandt, “Interleukin-6: a sensitive parameter for the early diagnosis of neonatal bacterial infection,” Pediatrics, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 1994.
- F. Genel, F. Atlihan, E. Ozsu, and E. Ozbek, “Monocyte HLA-DR expression as predictor of poor outcome in neonates with late onset neonatal sepsis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 224–228, 2010.
- D. Andaluz-Ojeda, V. Iglesias, F. Bobillo, et al., “Early natural killer cell counts in blood predict mortality in severe sepsis,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 5, p. R243, 2011.
- F. Venet, A. Lepape, and G. Monneret, “Clinical review: flow cytometry perspectives in the ICU—from diagnosis of infection to monitoring of injury-induced immune dysfunctions,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 231, 2011.
- P. C. Ng, “Clinical trials for evaluating diagnostic markers of infection in neonates,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 111–112, 2005.
- F. Nimmerjahn and J. V. Ravetch, “Fcγ receptors: old friends and new family members,” Immunity, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 2006.
- W. van der Meer, P. Pickkers Peter, C. S. Scott, J. G. van der Hoeven, and J. K. Gunnewiek, “Hematological indices, inflammatory markers and neutrophil CD64 expression: comparative trends during experimental human endotoxemia,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 94–100, 2007.
- D. Dilli, Ş. S. Oguz, U. Dilmen, M. Y. Köker, and M. KiZiLgün, “Predictive values of neutrophil CD64 expression compared with interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 363–370, 2010.
- S. Soni, N. Wadhwa, R. Kumar, M. M. Faridi, et al., “Evaluation of CD64 expression on neutrophils as an early indicator of neonatal sepsis,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. e33–e37, 2012.
- J. J. M. L. Hoffmann, “Neutrophil CD64: a diagnostic marker for infection and sepsis,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 903–916, 2009.
- F. Genel, F. Atlihan, N. Gulez, et al., “Evaluation of adhesion molecules CD64, CD11b and CD62L in neutrophils and monocytes of peripheral blood for early diagnosis of neonatal infection,” World Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 72–75, 2012.
- E. Hotoura, V. Giapros, A. Kostoula, et al., “Pre-inflammatory mediators and lymphocyte subpopulations in preterm neonates with sepsis,” Inflammation, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1094–1101, 2012.
- A. D. Aygun, A. N. Citak Kurt, A. Godekmerdan et al., “Neonates with culture proven sepsis have lower amounts and percentage of CD45RA+ T cells,” Inflammation, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 222–226, 2008.
- F. Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, F. Debonera, V. Drossou-Agakidou et al., “Flow cytometric measurement of HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes in healthy and sick neonates using monocyte negative selection,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 402–407, 2001.
- Y. Fan and J. L. Yu, “Umbilical blood biomarkers for predicting early-onset neonatal sepsis,” World Journal of Pediatrics WJP, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 101–108, 2012.
- L. L. Raynor, J. J. Saucerman, M. O. Akinola, et al., “Cytokine screening identifies NICU patients with Gram-negative bacteremia,” Pediatric Research, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 261–266, 2012.
- R. L. Schelonka, A. Maheshwari, W. A. Carlo et al., “T cell cytokines and the risk of blood stream infection in extremely low birth weight infants,” Cytokine, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 249–255, 2011.
- J. D. M. Edgar, V. Gabriel, J. R. Gallimore, S. A. McMillan, and J. Grant, “A prospective study of the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic performance of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, soluble E-selectin and serum amyloid A in the diagnosis of neonatal infection,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 10, article 22, 2010.
- M. E. S. Zaki and H. El Sayed, “Evaluation of microbiologic and hematologic parameters and E-selectin as early predictors for outcome of neonatal sepsis,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 133, no. 8, pp. 1291–1296, 2009.
- J. Figueras-Aloy, L. Gómez-López, J. M. Rodríguez-Miguélez, et al., “Serum soluble ICAM-1, VCAM-1, L-selectin, and P-selectin levels as markers of infection and their relation to clinical severity in neonatal sepsis,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 331–338, 2007.
- R. Austgulen, K. J. Arntzen, P. E. Hæreid, S. Aag, and H. Døllner, “Infections in neonates delivered at term are associated with increased serum levels of ICAM-1 and E-selectin,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 274–280, 1997.
- S. Gibot, M. C. Bene, R. Noel, F. Massin, et al., “Combination biomarkers to diagnose sepsis in the critically Ill patient,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2012.
- D. A. Solovjov, E. Pluskota, and E. F. Plow, “Distinct roles for the α and β subunits in the functions of integrin αMβ2,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 2, pp. 1336–1345, 2005.
- M. A. Arnaout, R. F. Todd, N. Dana, et al., “Inhibition of phagocytosis of complement C3- or immunoglobulin G-coated particles and of C3bi binding by monoclonal antibodies to a monocyte-granulocyte membrane glycoprotein (Mo1),” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 171–179, 1983.
- R. Turunen, O. Vaarala, I. Nupponen et al., “Activation of T cells in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome,” Neonatology, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 248–258, 2009.
- P. C. Ng, G. Li, K. M. Chui, et al., “Quantitative measurement of monocyte HLA-DR expression in the identification of early-onset neonatal infection,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 2006.
- G. Hodge, S. Hodge, P. Han, and R. Haslam, “Multiple leucocyte activation markers to detect neonatal infection,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 125–129, 2004.
- W. D. Döcke, C. Höflich, K. A. Davis, et al., “Monitoring temporary immunodepression by flow cytometric measurement of monocytic HLA-DR expression: a multicenter standardized study,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2341–2347, 2005.
- R. S. Hotchkiss, C. M. Coopersmith, and I. E. Karl, “Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis—a potential treatment of sepsis?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. S465–S469, 2005.
- C. A. Liu, C. L. Wang, F. S. Wang et al., “Higher spontaneous and TNFα-induced apoptosis of neonatal blood granulocytes,” Pediatric Research, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 132–137, 2005.
- D. H. Watts, M. A. Krohn, S. L. Hillier, and D. A. Eschenbach, “Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for post-cesarean endometritis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 1990.
- D. Viemann, G. Dubbel, S. Schleifenbaum, E. Harms, C. Sorg, and J. Roth, “Expression of toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis,” Pediatric Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 654–659, 2005.
- L. A. Herzenberg, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence-activated cell sorting,” Scientific American, vol. 234, no. 3, pp. 108–117, 1976.