Table 5: Changes in average number of portions or servings consumed per week (mean (SD)) from baseline to 3- and 5-year follow-up. Foods and beverages are grouped into recommended and non-recommended food and beverages based on the recommendations of the Research Institute of Child Nutrition (FKE) Dortmund [56, 57], ( ; baseline observation carried forward).

Baseline to 36-month follow-up (3YFU)—
mean (SD)
Test statistics1Baseline to 60-month follow-up (5YFU)—
mean (SD)
Test statistics1

Nonrecommended food

White bread−1.16 (7.27) = −4.11, < 0.001−0.96 (6.43) = −3.72, < 0.001
French fries, fried potatoes−0.40 (3.01) = −3.84, < 0.001−0.33 (2.56) = −2.70, < 0.010
Vegetables in cans−0.46 (4.45) = −2.51, < 0.050−0.30 (3.02) = −2.30, < 0.050
Fruits in cans−0.44 (3.78) = −4.01, < 0.001−0.40 (2.60) = −4.27, < 0.001
Butter−1.29 (6.10) = −5.48, < 0.001−0.82 (4.96) = −4.34, < 0.001
Fruit juices−2.42 (8.13) = −7.60, < 0.001−1.57 (6.12) = −6.39, < 0.001
Crumbed fish/fish sticks−0.45 (2.50) = −5.05, < 0.001−0.33 (1.62) = −5.12, < 0.001
Snacks (not further specified)−0.90 (3.88) = −6.07, < 0.001−0.48 (3.36) = −3.26, < 0.001
Cakes and cookies−0.93 (3.47) = −6.44, < 0.001−0.63 (3.19) = −5.43, < 0.001
Chocolate and other sweets−0.75 (4.29) = −3.60, < 0.001−0.53 (4.29) = −2.87, < 0.010
Fast Food (not further specified)−0.37 (2.92) = −2.20, < 0.050−0.16 (2.20) = −0.79, n.s.
Soft drinks−0.64 (5.94) = −2.25, < 0.050 0.00 = −2.25, n.s.

Recommended food (daily intake recommended)

(Mineral) water; tea+1.28 (1.26) = −2.63, < 0.010+0.89 (8.97) = −2.57, < 0.010

Recommended food (moderate intake recommended)

Meat−0.60 (5.19) = −2.91, < 0.010−0.43 (4.51) = −2.28, < 0.050
Sausages−0.45 (2.50) = −4.09, < 0.001−0.33 (1.62) = −2.75, < 0.010

Test statistics calculated by Wilcoxon-test.
3YFU: 3-year follow-up (36 month/3 years after baseline).
5YFU: 5-year follow-up (60 month/5 years after baseline).
Only items with significant changes are detailed (for at least one time period: baseline to 3 and/or 5 years after start of the programme). No significant changes were observed for whole grain bread, cereals, rice and noodles, boiled potatoes, fresh or deep frozen vegetables, salad, milk, cocoa, yogurt, buttermilk, quark, cheese, fish, eggs, margarine, ice, pudding, jam or honey, wine gum, coffee, and fruit juices mixed with water (1 : 2).