Table 2: Summary of published studies reporting childhood exposures to (a) arsenic, (b) cadmium, (c) lead, and (d) mercury in Emerging Market countries.
(a)

CountryAges SpecimenResults*

Brazil7–14 yearsUrineMedian 3.60 versus 6.30, 6.40, 8.94 μg/L (unexposed versus 3 exposed groups) versus , 107, 89 [38]

ChinaNewbornCord bloodMean 3.82 μg/L, [39]

IndiaChildrenUrineRange 23–4030 μg/L, [40]
9–11 yearsUrineRange 570–2349 μg/L, [41]
5–15 yearsUrineMean 78 μg/L (range 2–375), [42]

Mexico4–6 yearsUrineMean 143.9 versus 24.8 μg/L (exposed versus unexposed ) [43]
6–8 yearsUrineMean 58.1 μg/L, [44]
6–11 yearsUrineMeans 16.5 μg/dL [45], 19.9 μg/L [46], , 90
6–11 yearsUrineMedians 143.0, 100.0, 115.0 μg/L , 22, 22 [47]
6–11 yearsUrineMedians 136.75, 106.25, 116.0 μg/L , 21, 20 [48]
6–12 yearsUrineMean 22.35 μg/g creatinine, [49]

Poland 8–12 years
Urine
GMean 7.98 versus 5.99 μg/g creatinine ( exposed versus unexposed females) [37]
GMean 8.74 versus 6.73 μg/g creatinine ( exposed versus unexposed males) [37]

(b)

CountryAges SpecimenResults*

ChinaNewbornCord blood
Median 3.61 versus 1.25 μg/L ( e-waste exposed versus unexposed) [50]
Mean 4.84 versus 2.81 μg/L ( e-waste exposed versus unexposed) [50]
NewbornCord bloodMedian 0.6 μg/L (range 0.02–1.78), [51]
NewbornCord bloodGMean 0.36 μg/L (range 0.02–1.48), [52]

IndiaNewbornCord bloodGMean 0.6 μg/L, [53]

Mexico6–11 yearsUrineMean 4.7 μg/L, [45]
6–12 yearsUrineGMean 0.78 μg/L, [49]

Poland6-7 yearsWhole bloodGMean 0.6 μg/L, [54]
8–12 years Whole blood
GMean 0.19 versus 0.08 μg/L ( exposed versus unexposed females) [37]
GMean 0.19 versus 0.07 μg/L ( exposed versus unexposed males) [37]
8–12 years
Urine
GMean 0.56 versus 0.45 μg/g creatinine ( exposed versus 50 unexposed females) [37]
GMean 0.68 versus 0.44 μg/g creatinine ( exposed versus 35 unexposed males [37]

South Korea4–10 yearsWhole bloodGMean 1.51 μg/L (range 0.05–6.00), [55]
4–10 years
Urine
GMean 1.33 μg/L (range 0.02–5.25), [55]
GMean 1.69 μg/g creatinine (range 0.43–3.92), [55]

TaiwanNewbornCord bloodMean 0.67 μg/L, median 0.33 μg/L, [56]

(c)

CountryAges SpecimenResults

Brazil6–8 yearsWhole bloodMeans 2.1 μg/dL [57], 5.5 μg/dL [58], , 65

ChinaNewbornCord bloodMean 4.06 μg/dL, [59]
NewbornCord bloodMeans 3.6 μg/dL [60], 11.33 μg/dL [61], , 100
NewbornCord bloodGMeans 5.35 versus 8.41 versus 6.0 μg/dL (urban versus rural versus industrial residence ) [62]
NewbornCord bloodMedian 4.36 μg/dL (range 1.72–9.82) [51]
1–5 yearsWhole bloodGMean 8.2 μg/dL, [63]
2 months–14 yearsWhole bloodMeans 16.38 versus 7.12 μg/dL ( polluted versus control area) [64]
<6 yearsWhole bloodGMean 4.71 μg/dL, [65]
6–12 yearsWhole bloodRange 1.59–31.8 μg/dL, [66]
4–13 yearsWhole bloodGMean 6.71 μg/dL, [67]

IndiaNewbornCord bloodGMean 5.1 μg/dL, [53]
NewbornCord bloodMeans 11.4 versus 16.02 μg/dL, normal weight versus growth retarded [68]
InfantsWhole bloodMean 10.15 μg/dL (range 0.046–42.94), [69]
3–7 yearsWhole bloodMean 11.47 μg/dL (range 2.6–40.5), [70]
3–12 yearsWhole bloodMean 4.23 versus 9.86 μg/dL ( controls versus aplastic anemia cases) [71]
5–13 yearsWhole bloodMean 15.11 μg/dL, [72]
15–18 yearsWhole bloodMean 9.96 μg/dL (range 4.62–18.64), [73]

Indonesia6–12 yearsWhole bloodGMean 8.6 μg/dL ( ) [74]

MexicoNewbornCord bloodMeans, 2.7 μg/dL [75], 6.2 μg/dL [76], 8.1 μg/dL [77], 6.6 μg/dL [78], 6.7 μg/dL [79], 6.6 μg/dL [80], 5.49 μg/dL [81], , 146, 617, 424, 197, 364, 294
1 monthWhole blood Mean 5.5 μg/dL (range 1–23.1), [82]
12 monthWhole bloodMeans 4.6 μg/dL [81], 7.2 μg/dL [79],
1 yearWhole bloodGMean 8.4 μg/dL, [83]
2 yearsWhole bloodGMean 10.1 μg/dL, [83]
2 yearsWhole bloodMeans 4.8 μg/dL [76], 5.78 μg/dL [81], 8.2 μg/dL [80], 8.4 μg/dL [79], , 752, 283, 179
3 yearsWhole bloodMean 8.4 μg/dL, [80]
4 years Whole bloodMean 8.2 μg/dL, [80]
6–8 yearsWhole bloodMedian 10.2 μg/dL (range 1.9–43.8) [84]
6–8 yearsWhole bloodMean 11.5 μg/dL, [44]
6–11 yearsWhole bloodMeans 4.6 μg/dL [45], 9.4 μg/dL [49], , 50
6–11 yearsWhole bloodMedian by group, with increasing proximity to source: 4.6, 9.5, 28.6 μg/dL, , 22, 22 [48]
6–11 yearsWhole bloodMedian by group with increasing proximity to source: 7.02, 20.6, 30.38 μg/dL, [47]
6–12 yearsWhole blood GMeans 10.5, 11.2, 12.4 μg/dL, [85]

PolandNewbornCord bloodMedian 1.23 μg/dL (range 0.44–6.90), [86]
NewbornCord bloodMean 1.42 μg/dL, [87]
5–14 yearsWhole bloodMean 7.69 μg/dL, median 6.77 μg/dL (range 2.7–23), [88]
6-7 yearsWhole bloodGMean 4.2 μg/dL, [54]
7–15 yearsWhole bloodMean 7.3 μg/dL, median 6.6 μg/dL, [89]
8–12 years
Whole blood
GMean 5.72 versus 3.42 μg/dL ( exposed versus unexposed females) [37]
GMean 6.51 versus 3.81 μg/dL ( exposed versus unexposed males) [37]

South Korea4–10 yearsWhole bloodGMean 3.80 μg/dL (range 1.30–9.95) [55]
10–15 yearsWhole bloodMean 4.3 versus 6.9 μg/dL ( controls versus anemia) [90]

TaiwanNewbornCord bloodMeans 7.8 versus 3.28 versus 2.35 μg/dL in 1985–87 versus 1990–92 versus 2001-02 [91]
NewbornCord bloodMean 1.29 μg/dL, [92]
NewbornCord bloodGMeans 1.26 μg/dL [93], 1.30 μg/dL [94], , 430
2-3 yearsWhole bloodGMean 2.48 μg/dL, [94]
5-6 yearsWhole bloodGMean 2.49 μg/dL, [94]
8-9 yearsWhole bloodGMean 1.97 μg/dL, [94]
7–11 yearsWhole bloodMeans 1.60 versus 7.79 μg/dL ( controls versus exposed males) [95]
8–12 yearsWhole bloodMeans 3.45 versus 5.23 versus 8.80 μg/dL, unexposed versus and 34 exposed [96]

TurkeyNewbornCord bloodMean 1.65 μg/dL, [97]
Whole bloodMean 3.56 μg/dL, [97]
15–19 yearsWhole bloodMean 7.8 versus 1.6 μg/dL ( exposed versus unexposed) [98]

(d)

CountryAges SpecimenResults

Brazil
NewbornCord bloodGMean 9.63 μg/L, [99]
NewbornCord bloodMean 16.68 μg/L (range 0.35–135.04), [100]

ChinaNewbornCord bloodGMean 5.58 μg/L, [101]
NewbornCord bloodMean 7.0 μg/L (range 2.28–39.72), [60]

Indonesia9–17 years
UrineMedians 0.32 versus 7.06 μg/g creatinine (control versus occupationally exposed ) [102]
Whole bloodMedians 3.47 versus 7.75 μg/L (control versus occupationally exposed ) [102]

Mexico6–11 yrUrineGMean 4.2 μg/g creatinine, [103]
6–12 yr UrineMean 0.7 μg/L, [45]

Poland
NewbornCord bloodMean 1.06 μg/L, [104]
NewbornCord bloodGMean 0.88 μg/L (range 0.10–5.00) [105]

*Results are expressed as they were provided: arithmetic mean (mean), geometric mean (Gmean), or median value.
Study of occupational take-home exposure.