- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 874726, 8 pages
Probiotics and Prebiotics: Role in Prevention of Nosocomial Sepsis in Preterm Infants
1Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T1N 1N4
2Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
3Department of Pediatrics, Foothills Medical Centre, Rm C211-1403-29th Street NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9
Received 10 September 2012; Accepted 27 December 2012
Academic Editor: Khalid N. Haque
Copyright © 2013 Vrinda Nair and Amuchou S. Soraisham. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. A. Polin, S. Denson, and M. T. Brady, “Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Committee on Infectious Diseases .Strategies for prevention of health care-associated infections in the NICU,” Pediatrics, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. e1085–e1093, 2012.
- R. Clark, R. Powers, R. White, B. Bloom, P. Sanchez, and D. K. Benjamin Jr., “Nosocomial infection in the NICU: a medical complication or unavoidable problem?” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 382–388, 2004.
- B. J. Stoll, N. Hansen, A. A. Fanaroff et al., “Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network,” Pediatrics, vol. 110, no. 2, part 1, pp. 285–291, 2002.
- S. Sivanandan, A. S. Soraisham, and K. Swarnam, “Choice and duration of antimicrobial therapy for neonatal sepsis and meningitis,” International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2011, Article ID 712150, 9 pages, 2011.
- B. J. Stoll, N. I. Hansen, I. Adams-Chapman et al., “Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 19, pp. 2357–2365, 2004.
- L. J. Schlapbach, M. Aebischer, M. Adams, G. Natalucci, J. Bonhoeffer, and P. Latzin, “Impact of sepsis on neurodevelopmental outcome in a Swiss National Cohort of extremely premature infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 348–357, 2011.
- I. Adams-Chapman and B. J. Stoll, “Neonatal infection and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm infant,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 290–297, 2006.
- L. Saiman, “Strategies for prevention of nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 101–106, 2006.
- A. Borghesi, C. Tzialla, L. Decembrino, P. Manzoni, and M. Stronati, “New possibilities of prevention of infection in the newborn,” Journal of Maternal Fetal Neonatal Medicine, vol. 24, supplement 2, pp. 28–30, 2011.
- M. Pietzak, “Bacterial colonization of the neonatal gut,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 389–391, 2004.
- M. M. Grönlund, O. P. Lehtonen, E. Eerola, and P. Kero, “Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 1999.
- J. L. Blakey, L. Lubitz, and G. L. Barnes, “Development of gut colonisation in pre-term neonates,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 519–529, 1982.
- I. H. Gewolb, R. S. Schwalbe, V. L. Taciak, T. S. Harrison, and P. Panigrahi, “Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. F167–F173, 1999.
- P. Manzoni, S. Rizzollo, L. Decembrino et al., “Recent advances in prevention of sepsis in the premature neonates in NICU,” Early Human Development, vol. 87, supplement 1, pp. S31–S33, 2011.
- Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food: report of a joint FAO/WHO Working Group. London, Ontario Canada: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization, 2002.
- C. Hammerman, A. Bin-Nun, and M. Kaplan, “Germ warfare: probiotics in defense of the premature gut,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 489–500, 2004.
- C. R. Martin and W. A. Walker, “Probiotics: role in pathophysiology and prevention in necrotizing enterocolitis,” Seminars in Perinatology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 127–137, 2008.
- N. T. Williams, “Probiotics,” American Journal of Health System-Pharmacy, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 449–458, 2010.
- L. C. Duffy, “Interactions mediating bacterial translocation in the immature intestine,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 432S–436S, 2000.
- J. Neu and W. A. Walker, “Necrotizing enterocolitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 3, pp. 255–264, 2011.
- P. W. Lin and B. J. Stoll, “Necrotising enterocolitis,” The Lancet, vol. 368, no. 9543, pp. 1271–1283, 2006.
- D. W. Thomas and F. R. Greer, “Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics,” Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1217–1231, 2010.
- M. R. Millar, C. Bacon, S. L. Smith, V. Walker, and M. A. Hall, “Enteral feeding of premature infants with Lactobacillus GG,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 483–487, 1993.
- A. B. Hoyos, “Reduced incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with enteral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis to neonates in an intensive care unit,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 197–202, 1999.
- H. Kitajima, Y. Sumida, R. Tanaka, N. Yuki, H. Takayama, and M. Fujimura, “Early administration of Bifidobacterium breve to preterm infants: randomised controlled trial,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. F101–F107, 1997.
- C. Dani, R. Biadaioli, G. Bertini, E. Martelli, and F. F. Rubaltelli, “Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a prospective double-blind study,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2002.
- C. Costalos, V. Skouteri, A. Gounaris et al., “Enteral feeding of premature infants with Saccharomyces boulardii,” Early Human Development, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2003.
- H. C. Lin, B. H. Su, A. C. Chen et al., “Oral probiotics reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2005.
- A. Bin-Nun, R. Bromiker, M. Wilschanski et al., “Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 192–196, 2005.
- P. Manzoni, H. Mostert, M. L. Leonessa et al., “Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus prevents enteric colonization by Candida species in preterm neonates: a randomized study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1735–1742, 2006.
- Z. Stratiki, C. Costalos, S. Sevastiadou et al., “The effect of a bifidobacter supplemented bovine milk on intestinal permeability of preterm infants,” Early Human Development, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 575–579, 2007.
- H. C. Lin, C. H. Hsu, H. L. Chen et al., “Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 693–700, 2008.
- M. Samanta, M. Sarkar, P. Ghosh, J. K. Ghosh, M. K. Sinha, and S. Chatterjee, “Prophylactic probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight newborns,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 128–131, 2009.
- C. Rougé, H. Piloquet, M. J. Butel et al., “Oral supplementation with probiotics in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 1828–1835, 2009.
- H. Awad, G. Mokhtar, S. S. Imam, G. I. Gad, H. Hafez, and N. Aboushady, “Comparison between killed and living probiotic usage versus placebo for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in neonates,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 253–262, 2010.
- W. A. Mihatsch, S. Vossbeck, B. Eikmanns, J. Hoegel, and F. Pohlandt, “Effect of bifidobacterium lactis on the incidence of nosocomial infections in very-low-birth-weight infants: a randomized controlled trial,” Neonatology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2010.
- M. G. Romeo, D. M. Romeo, L. Trovato et al., “Role of probiotics in the prevention of the enteric colonization by Candida in preterm newborns: incidence of late-onset sepsis and neurological outcome,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2011.
- T. D. Braga, G. A. P. Da Silva, P. I. C. De Lira, and M. De Carvalho Lima, “Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei oral supplementation on necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2011.
- F. N. Sari, E. A. Dizdar, S. Oguz, O. Erdeve, N. Uras, and U. Dilmen, “Oral probiotics: lactobacillus sporogenes for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low-birth weight infants: a randomized, controlled trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 434–439, 2011.
- L. A. Fernández-Carrocera, A. Solis-Herrera, M. Cabanillas-Ayón, et al., “Double-blind, randomised clinical assay to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in preterm newborns weighing less than 1500 g in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis,” Archives of Diseases in Childhood, vol. 98, no. 1, Article ID 300435, pp. F5–F9, 2013.
- A. R. Barclay, B. Stenson, J. H. Simpson, L. T. Weaver, and D. C. Wilson, “Probiotics for necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 569–576, 2007.
- G. Deshpande, S. Rao, and S. Patole, “Probiotics for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birthweight: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” The Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9573, pp. 1614–1620, 2007.
- G. Deshpande, S. Rao, S. Patole, and M. Bulsara, “Updated meta-analysis of probiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates,” Pediatrics, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 921–930, 2010.
- K. Alfaleh, J. Anabrees, D. Bassler, and T. Al-Kharfi, “Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, p. CD005496, 2011.
- W. A. Mihatsch, C. P. Braegger, T. Decsi, et al., “Critical systematic review of the level of evidence for routine use of probiotics for reduction of mortality and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2012.
- Q. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zhu, “Probiotic supplement reduces risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in preterm very low-birth-weight infants: an updated meta-analysis of 20 randomized, controlled trial,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 241–248, 2012.
- A. N. Kunz, J. M. Noel, and M. P. Fairchok, “Two cases of Lactobacillus bacteremia during probiotic treatment of short gut syndrome,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 457–458, 2004.
- M. H. Land, K. Rouster-Stevens, C. R. Woods, M. L. Cannon, J. Cnota, and A. K. Shetty, “Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 178–181, 2005.
- A. Ohishi, S. Takahashi, Y. Ito et al., “Bifidobacterium septicemia associated with postoperative probiotic therapy in a neonate with omphalocele,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 679–681, 2010.
- A. Jenke, E. M. Ruf, T. Hoppe, M. Heldmann, and S. Wirth, “Bifidobacterium septicaemia in an extremely low-birthweight infant under probiotic therapy,” Archives of Diseases in Childhood, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 217–218, 2012.
- P. Kochan, A. Chmielarczyk, L. Szymaniak, M. Brykczynski, K. Galant, and A. Zych, “Lactobacillus rhamnosus administration causes sepsis in a cardiosurgical patient–is the time right to revise probiotic safety guidelines?” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1589–1592, 2011.
- E. Stefanatou, M. Kompoti, A. Paridou, I. Koutsodimitropoulos, P. Giannopoulou, and N. Markou, “Probiotic sepsis due to Saccharomyces fungaemia in a critically ill burn patient,” Mycoses, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. e643–e646, 2011.
- I. C. Chou, H. T. Kuo, J. S. Chang et al., “Lack of effects of oral probiotics on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm very low birth weight infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 393–396, 2010.
- F. N. Sari, Z. Eras, E. A. Dizdar, et al., “Do oral probiotics affect growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in very low-birth-weight preterm infants?” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 579–586, 2012.
- M. Kalliomäki, S. Salminen, T. Poussa, H. Arvilommi, and E. Isolauri, “Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9372, pp. 1869–1871, 2003.
- C. Agostoni, G. Buonocore, V. P. Carnielli et al., “Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the european society of paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition committee on nutrition,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2010.
- G. R. Gibson and M. B. Roberfroid, “Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota. Introducing the concept of prebiotics,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1401–1412, 1995.
- D. Dai and W. A. Walker, “Protective nutrients and bacterial colonization in the immature human gut,” Advances in Pediatrics, vol. 46, pp. 353–382, 1999.
- K. Jeong, V. Nguyen, and J. Kim, “Human milk oligosaccharides: the novel modulator of intestinal microbiota,” Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 433–441, 2012.
- R. Srinivasjois, S. Rao, and S. Patole, “Prebiotic supplementation of formula in preterm neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 237–242, 2009.
- G. Boehm, M. Lidestri, P. Casetta et al., “Supplementation of a bovine milk formula with an oligosaccharide mixture increases counts of faecal bifidobacteria in preterm infants,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. F178–F181, 2002.
- W. Mihatsch, J. Hoegel, and F. Pohlandt, “Prebiotic oligosaccharides reduce stool viscosity and accelerate gastrointestinal transport in preterm infants,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 843–848, 2006.
- F. Indrio, G. Riezzo, F. Raimondi et al., “Prebiotics improve gastric motility and gastric electrical activity in preterm newborns,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 258–261, 2009.
- A. Kapiki, C. Costalos, C. Oikonomidou, A. Triantafyllidou, E. Loukatou, and V. Pertrohilou, “The effect of a fructo-oligosaccharide supplemented formula on gut flora of preterm infants,” Early Human Development, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 335–339, 2007.
- R. Luoto, J. Matomäki, E. Isolauri, and L. Lehtonen, “Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 1135–1138, 2010.
- S. M. Garland, J. M. Tobin, M. Pirotta et al., “The ProPrems Trial: investigating the effects of probiotics on late onset sepsis in very preterm infants,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 210, 2011.