About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 953103, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/953103
Research Article

Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

1Research Center for Behavioral and Neurosciences, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
2Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3Department of Psychiatry, Razi Hospital, Elgoli Road, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran
4Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
5Department of Epidemiology, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
6Student Research Committee, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
7Tropical and Infectious Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
8Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Received 1 August 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editor: Namık Yaşar Özbek

Copyright © 2013 Javad Golmirzaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls). All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance ( value < 0.0001). The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease ( value < 0.0001), history of trauma and accident during pregnancy ( value = 0.039), abortion proceeds ( value < 0.0001), unintended pregnancy ( value < 0.0001), and history of head trauma ( value < 0.0001). Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.