Table 1: Maternal, pregnancy, and neonatal risk factors for ADHD among case and control subjects.

Proposed risk factor GroupNumber (%)OR (95% CI) value

Trauma to abdomen in pregnancyADHD7 (3.4%)4 (0.000–1000)0.039
Control1 (0.5%)
X-ray exposureADHD2 (1%)NS*
Control1 (0.05%)
Vaginal bleedingADHD8 (3.9%)NS
Control11 (5.6%)
Infectious disease during pregnancyADHD7 (3.4%)NS
Control5 (2.5%)
Cigarette and alcohol consumptionADHD25 (12.1%)<0.0001
Control4 (2%)
PreeclampsiaADHD20 (9.7%)0.009
Control6 (3%)
DysenteryADHD8 (3.9%)NS
Control11 (5.6%)
Cesarean sectionADHD107 (51.7%)0.019
Control81 (40.9%)
Unwanted pregnancyADHD29 (14%)4.2 (0.000–1000)<0.0001
Control5 (2.5%)
Previous abortionADHD36 (17.4%)24 (0.594–977.082)<0.0001
Control11 (5.6%)
Somatic disease at pregnancyADHD14 (6.8%)0.007
Control3 (1.5%)
Psychiatric disease at pregnancyADHD17 (8.2%)0.004
Control4 (2%)
Formula feedingADHD75 (36.6%)<0.0001
Control39 (24.9%)

NS: not significant.