Table 1: Summary of markers of appetite regulation in various cachectic states.

ConditionAppetiteBody WeightCirculating Leptin LevelsPOMC/α-MSH hypothalamic levelsNPY/AgRP hypothalamic levelsCirculating inflammatory markersHypothalamic inflammatory markersReferences

Cancer cachexia*#*#*#↑* * *#↑*[60, 8487]
CHF-induced cachexia*#*#*#unknownunknown*#unknown[10, 99102, 115]
Pulmonary cachexia*#*#*#unknownunknown*#unknown[121, 122, 124126]
CKD cachexia*#*#*#unknownunknown*#unknown[135, 137, 139, 140, 142, 145]
Aging cachexia*#*#*#↑* * *#unknown[146150]

—supported by human model data; *—supported by animal model data.