Table 1: Examples of MAS applications in maize improvement.

TraitsMolecular markersNoteReferences

Grain yield, ear number, plant heightRFLPIncrease of hybrid yield by enhancing both parents with introgression of favorable alleles[239, 254]

Grain yielding, percent stalk lodgingRFLPEarly generation test of inbreeding process[255]

Grain yield, earlinessRFLPForeground selection for three loci of earliness and grain yield and background selection[256]

Grain yieldSSRFour yield QTL were selected as target introgressions in the developmentof BC3 families[257]

Seeding emergencyRFLPSeedling emergence of three elite commercial sweet corn inbreds has been improved by introgression of three alleles with marker-assisted backcross[258]

Drought toleranceRFLP, SSRFive favorable alleles related to drought tolerance were successfully introgressed into the recurrent parent[240]

Fertility restorer geneSSRSelection of Rf3 gene[259]

Southwestern corn borerRFLPA total of five loci traced during backcross[260]

Stalk strength, second-generation European corn borerRFLPComparison of effectiveness between phenotypic selection and MAS on stalk strength and second-generation European corn borer resistance[261]

Quality protein maize (QPM)SSRBoth foreground selection for the  o2 gene and background selection for restoration of recurrent genome[262]

Quality protein maize (QPM)SSRo2 gene was introgressed into herbicide resistant elite maize inbred lines using three SSR markers[263]

Drought toleranceRFLPInbred line CML247 was improved for drought tolerance through four cycles of MABC[241]