Table 3: Emigration estimates of the foreign-born population by characteristic, 1978–1998.

Emigration rate (Percent)
From the United StatesFrom the Social Security system

All Foreign born1.300.98
Sex
 Men1.230.92
 Women1.370.96
Age group
 16–240.690.65
 25–341.241.09
 35–441.471.06
 45–622.281.10

Time spent working in the united states

0–4 years2.702.31
5–9 years1.751.30
10–15 years1.240.73
16–20 years0.950.47
21+ years0.210.10

Country or region of origin*

Mexico1.330.83
Philippines0.750.46
Vietnam0.600.55
Germany1.460.69
India0.620.58
El Salvador0.740.58
Canada1.670.94
England1.741.58
Cuba1.331.10
South Korea1.391.32
All others1.381.04

Source. Author's calculations from merged Detailed Earnings Records, Numident, and Master Beneficiary Record data from the Social Security Administration.
Note. Data are annual averages over 1978–1998.
* Ranked by share of population in the USA; see Table 1.