Table 4: Logit-hazard model regressions investigating the determinants of annual emigration, odds ratios.

Panel A. Emigration from the USA
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)

Sex (dummy, 1 = men)1.0401.0921.0361.0861.0841.0701.0651.065
Age1.0221.0220.9770.9860.9841.044
Age squared1.0011.0001.0001.0001.001
Average earningsa0.9830.9820.9840.9820.9830.9870.9870.987
Difference in growth rates
of GDP per capitab1.0031.0041.0041.004
Constant0.0100.0070.0230.0130.0130.0060.0030.002
Country dummy variablesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
Year dummy variablescNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYes
Age dummy variablesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
Number of observations3,672,1403,672,1403,672,1403,672,1403,474,3973,375,8833,327,6993,327,699

Panel B. Emigration from the US Social Security System
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)

Sex (dummy, 1 = men)1.0841.1361.0841.1381.1421.1181.1111.111
Age0.9990.9991.0061.0141.0131.094
Age squared1.0001.0001.0000.9991.001
Average earningsa0.9820.9810.9820.9810.9820.9870.9870.987
Difference in growth rates
of GDP per capitab1.0021.0021.0021.002
Constant0.0180.0130.0160.0100.0110.0030.0030.003
Country dummy variablesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
Year dummy variablescNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYes
Age dummy variablesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
Number of observations3,672,1403,671,8383,672,1403,671,8383,474,3973,375,8833,327,6993,327,699

Source. author's calculations.
Note. the dependent variable is the odds of the immigrant emigrating from the United States in any year.
aDefined as average earnings over the past three years, in 2007 CPI-U-RS-adjusted dollars.
bAnnual percentage change in US GDP per capita minus annual percentage change in GDP per capita in the country or region of origin.
cDuration-interval-specific dummy variables for each observation.
All estimates are statistically significant (with heteroskedastically-consistent standard errors) at the 1-percent level, except for the coefficient on age in columns (1) and (2) of Panel B and the GDP variable in Panel B, all of which are statistically significant at the 10 percent level.