About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Population Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 470598, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/470598
Research Article

Addressing Inequities in Access to Health Products through the Use of Social Marketing, Community Mobilization, and Local Entrepreneurs in Rural Western Kenya

1Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
2Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
3Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
4Nutrition Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
5Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu 1570-50100, Kenya

Received 1 November 2011; Revised 21 March 2012; Accepted 25 March 2012

Academic Editor: Syed Masud Ahmed

Copyright © 2012 Julie R. Harris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Chen and M. Ravallion, “Developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty,” World bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, 2008, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1259575.
  2. WHO, “World Health Statistics 2009,” 2009, http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf.
  3. PSI, “What is social marketing?” 2006, http://www.psi.org/resources/research-metrics/publications/social-marketing-research-series/what-social-marketing-0.
  4. D. Meekers, R. Van Rossem, M. Silva, and A. Koleros, “The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi,” Studies in Family Planning, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Van Rossem and D. Meekers, “The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia,” BMC Public Health, vol. 7, article no. 352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Versteeg and M. Murray, “Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa,” Sahara J, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 83–93, 2008. View at Scopus
  7. D. P. Mathanga, C. H. Campbell, T. E. Taylor, R. Barlow, and M. L. Wilson, “Socially marketed insecticide-treated nets effectively reduce Plasmodium infection and anaemia among children in urban Malawi,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1367–1374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Agha, R. Van Rossem, G. Stallworthy, and T. Kusanthan, “The impact of a hybrid social marketing intervention on inequities in access, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets,” Malaria Journal, vol. 6, article no. 13, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. M. Noor, A. A. Amin, W. S. Akhwale, and R. W. Snow, “Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 8, article e255, pp. 1341–1348, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Bernard, G. Mtove, R. Mandike, F. Mtei, C. Maxwell, and H. Reyburn, “Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania,” Malaria Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, article no. 65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. D. Evans, J. Blitstein, J. C. Hersey, J. Renaud, and A. L. Yaroch, “Systematic review of public health branding,” Journal of Health Communication, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 721–741, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Kyama and D. G. McNeil, “Distribution of nets splits malaria fighters,” New York Times, 2007.
  13. A. Teklehaimanot, J. D. Sachs, and C. Curtis, “Malaria control needs mass distribution of insecticidal bednets,” Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9580, pp. 2143–2146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. J. Stockman, T. K. Fischer, M. Deming et al., “Point-of-use water treatment and use among mothers in Malawi,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1077–1080, 2007. View at Scopus
  15. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, “N., Kenya and MEASURE DHS, ICF Macro, Calverton, Maryland, USA,” Kenya: DHS, 2008-09, Final Report, 2009.
  16. M. R. Desai, D. J. Terlouw, A. M. Kwena et al., “Factors associated with hemoglobin concentrations in pre-school children in western Kenya: cross-sectional studies,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2005. View at Scopus
  17. M. E. D. Jefferds, L. Ogange, M. Owuor et al., “Formative research exploring acceptability, utilization, and promotion in order to develop a micronutrient powder (Sprinkles) intervention among Luo families in western Kenya,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2, supplement, pp. S179–S185, 2010. View at Scopus
  18. P. S. Suchdev, L. Ruth, A. Obure et al., “Monitoring the marketing, distribution, and use of Sprinkles micronutrient powders in rural western Kenya,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2, supplement, pp. S168–S178, 2010. View at Scopus
  19. M. C. Freeman, R. E. Quick, D. P. Abbott, P. Ogutu, and R. Rheingans, “Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya,” Journal of Water and Health, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 527–534, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Makutsa, K. Nzaku, P. Ogutu et al., “Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in rural Kenya,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 1571–1573, 2001. View at Scopus
  21. R. Quick, “Changing community behaviour: experience from three African countries,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. S115–S121, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. W. Fegan, A. M. Noor, W. S. Akhwale, S. Cousens, and R. W. Snow, “Effect of expanded insecticide-treated bednet coverage on child survival in rural Kenya: a longitudinal study,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9592, pp. 1035–1039, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Noor, J. J. Mutheu, A. J. Tatem, S. I. Hay, and R. W. Snow, “Insecticide-treated net coverage in Africa: mapping progress in 2000–07,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9657, pp. 58–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Filmer and L. H. Pritchett, “Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—Or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India,” Demography, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 115–132, 2001. View at Scopus
  25. D. R. Gwatkin, S. Rustein, K. Johnson, R. Pande, A. Wagstaff, and A. Amouzou, “Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition, and population in Kenya,” The World Bank, 2007.
  26. J. Gregson, S. B. Foerster, R. Orr et al., “System, environmental, and policy changes: using the social-ecological model as a framework for evaluating nutrition education and social marketing programs with low-income audiences,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. S4–S15, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. W. D. Evans, “What social marketing can do for you,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7551, pp. 1207–1210, 2006. View at Scopus
  28. L. M. Barat, N. Palmer, S. Basu, E. Worrall, K. Hanson, and A. Mills, “Do malaria control interventions reach the poor? A view through the equity lens,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 71, no. 2, supplement, pp. 174–178, 2004. View at Scopus
  29. A. A. Parker, R. Stephenson, P. L. Riley et al., “Sustained high levels of stored drinking water treatment and retention of hand-washing knowledge in rural Kenyan households following a clinic-based intervention,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 1029–1036, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. C. Briere, T. K. Ryman, E. Cartwright, et al., “Impact of integration of hygiene kit distribution with routine immunizations on infant vaccine coverage and water treatment and handwashing practices of Kenyan mothers,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 205, supplement 1, pp. S56–S64, 2012.
  31. A. N. Sheth, E. T. Russo, M. Menon et al., “Impact of the integration of water treatment and handwashing incentives with antenatal services on hygiene practices of pregnant women in Malawi,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1315–1321, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. O. Onwujekwe, E. F. Malik, S. H. Mustafa, and A. Mnzavaa, “Do malaria preventive interventions reach the poor? Socioeconomic inequities in expenditure on and use of mosquito control tools in Sudan,” Health Policy and Planning, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Hanson, T. Marchant, R. Nathan et al., “Household ownership and use of insecticide treated nets among target groups after implementation of a national voucher programme in the United Republic of Tanzania: plausibility study using three annual cross sectional household surveys.,” BMJ, vol. 339, article b2434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. Ponsar, M. VanHerp, R. Zachariah, et al., “Abolishing user fees for children and pregnant women trebled uptake of malaria-related interventions in Kangaba, Mali,” Health Policy and Planning, vol. 26, supplement 2, pp. ii72–ii83, 2011.
  35. J. C. Fotso and B. Kuate-Defo, “Socioeconomic inequalities in early childhood malnutrition and morbidity: modification of the household-level effects by the community SES,” Health and Place, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 205–225, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus