About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Population Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 485956, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/485956
Research Article

Resilience and Its Association with Depression, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, and Mental Health Service Utilisation among Refugee Adolescents Living in South Australia

1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
2Public Health Research Unit, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia
3Research and Evaluation Unit, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia

Received 10 December 2011; Revised 14 March 2012; Accepted 15 March 2012

Academic Editor: Cherylynn Bassani

Copyright © 2012 Tahereh Ziaian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Department of Immigration and Citizenship, “Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship Annual Report 2009-2010”.
  2. S. L. Lustig, M. Kia-Keating, W. G. Knight et al., “Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 24–36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Senate Select Committee on Mental Health, “A national approach to mental health—from crisis to community,” Final Report, Commonwealth of Australia, 2006.
  4. R. S. McKelvey, D. L. Sang, L. Baldassar, L. Davies, L. Roberts, and N. Cutler, “The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Vietnamese children and adolescents,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 177, no. 8, pp. 413–417, 2002. View at Scopus
  5. J. Krupinski and G. D. Burrows, The Price of Freedom: Young Indochinese Refugees in Australia, Pergamon, Sydney, Australia, 1986.
  6. K. Almqvist and M. Brandell-Forsberg, “Refugee children in sweden: post-traumatic stress disorder in iranian preschool children exposed to organized violence,” Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 351–366, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. M. Rothe, J. Lewis, H. Castillo-Matos, O. Martinez, R. Busquets, and I. Martinez, “Posttraumatic stress disorder among Cuban children and adolescents after release from a refugee camp,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 970–976, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Weine, D. F. Becker, T. H. McGlashan, D. Vojvoda, S. Hartman, and J. P. Robbins, “Adolescent survivors of 'Ethnic cleansing' observations on the first year in America,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1153–1159, 1995. View at Scopus
  9. W. H. Sack, G. N. Clarke, and J. Seeley, “Multiple forms of stress in Cambodian adolescent refugees,” Child Development, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 107–116, 1996. View at Scopus
  10. J. D. Kinzie, W. H. Sack, R. H. Angell, G. N. Clarke, and R. Ben, “The psychiatric effects of massive trauma on Cambodian children: I. The children,” Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 370–376, 1986. View at Scopus
  11. D. Servan-Schreiber, B. Le Lin, and B. Birmaher, “Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder in Tibetan refugee children,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 874–879, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Fazel, J. Wheeler, and J. Danesh, “Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9467, pp. 1309–1314, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. F. Mollica, C. Poole, L. Son, C. C. Murray, and S. Tor, “Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents' functional health and mental health status,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1098–1106, 1997. View at Scopus
  14. T. Ziaian, H. de Anstiss, G. Antoniou, M. Sawyer, and P. Baghurst, “Depressive symptomatology and service utilisation among refugee children and adolescents living in South Australia,” Child and Adolescent Mental Health. In press.
  15. M. Hodes, “Psychologically distressed refugee children in the United Kingdom,” Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 57–68, 2000.
  16. D. Summerfield, “Childhood, war, refugeedom and ‘trauma’: three core questions for mental health professionals,” Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 417–433, 2000. View at Scopus
  17. D. Becker, R. J. Kleber, C. R. Figley, and B. P. R. Gersons, “The deficiency of the concept of posttraumatic stress when dealing with victims of human rights violations,” in Beyond Trauma: Cultural and Societal Dynamics, R. J. Kleber, C. R. Figley, and B. P. R. Gersons, Eds., pp. 99–110, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  18. K. E. Miller and L. M. Rasco, “An ecological framework for addressing the mental health needs of refugee communities,” in The Mental Health of Refugees: Ecological Approaches to Healing and Adaptation, K. E. Miller and L. M. Rasco, Eds., pp. 1–64, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, NJ, USA, 2004.
  19. M. A. Muecke, “New paradigms for refugee health problems,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 515–523, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Crawford, M. O. Wright, and A. Masten, “Resilience and spirituality in youth,” in The Handbook of Apiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence, E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. Wagener, and P. L. Benson, Eds., Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2005.
  21. M. Rutter, “Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 316–331, 1987. View at Scopus
  22. O. Hjemdal, P. A. Vogel, S. Solem, K. Hagen, and T. C. Stiles, “The relationship between resilience and levels of anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adolescents,” Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 314–321, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. M. Connor and J. R. T. Davidson, “Development of a new Resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC),” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 76–82, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Almqvist and A. G. Broberg, “Mental health and social adjustment in young refugee children 31/2 years after their arrival in Sweden,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 723–730, 1999. View at Scopus
  25. M. Ajdukovic and D. Ajdukovic, “Psychological well-being of refugee children,” Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 843–854, 1993. View at Scopus
  26. M. M. Tsoi, G. K. K. Yu, and F. Lieh-Mak, “Vietnamese refugee children in camps in Hong Kong,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1147–1150, 1986. View at Scopus
  27. C. Rousseau, A. Drapeau, and S. Rahimi, “The complexity of trauma response: a 4-year follow-up of adolescent Cambodian refugees,” Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1277–1290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Dybdahl, “Children and mothers in war: an outcome study of a psychosocial intervention program,” Child Development, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 1214–1230, 2001. View at Scopus
  29. J. Garbarino and K. Kostelny, “What do we need to know to understand children in war and community violence?” in Minefields in Their Hearts: The Mental Health of Children in War and Communal Violence, A. R. S. Bennett, Ed., pp. 33–51, Yale University, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1996.
  30. M. Ní Raghallaigh, “Religion in the lives of unaccompanied minors: an available and compelling coping resource,” British Journal of Social Work, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 539–556, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. H. Goodman, “Coping with trauma and hardship among unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1177–1196, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Hasanović, S. Srabović, M. Rašidović et al., “Psychosocial assistance to students with posttraumatic stress disorder in primary and secondary schools in post-war Bosnia Herzegovina,” Psychiatria Danubina, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 463–473, 2009. View at Scopus
  33. C. McMichael, S. M. Gifford, and I. Correa-Velez, “Negotiating family, navigating resettlement: family connectedness amongst resettled youth with refugee backgrounds living in Melbourne, Australia,” Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 179–195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. M. N. Renzaho, J. Green, D. Mellor, and B. Swinburn, “Parenting, family functioning and lifestyle in a new culture: the case of African migrants in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia,” Child and Family Social Work, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 228–240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. M. N. Renzaho, M. McCabe, and W. J. Sainsbury, “Parenting, role reversals and the preservation of cultural values among Arabic speaking migrant families in Melbourne, Australia,” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 416–424, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Runkewitz, H. Kirchmann, and B. Strauss, “Anxiety and depression in primary care patients: predictors of symptom severity and developmental correlates,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 445–453, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Campbell-Sills, S. L. Cohan, and M. B. Stein, “Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 585–599, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. A. Burns, K. J. Anstey, and T. D. Windsor, “Subjective well-being mediates the effects of resilience and mastery on depression and anxiety in a large community sample of young and middle-aged adults,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 240–248, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. O. Hjemdal, T. Aune, T. Reinfjell, T. C. Stiles, and O. Friborg, “Resilience as a predictor of depressive symptoms: a correlational study with young adolescents,” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 91–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. X. N. Yu, J. T. F. Lau, W. W. S. Mak, J. Zhang, and W. W. S. Lui, “Factor structure and psychometric properties of the connor-davidson resilience scale among chinese adolescents,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 218–224, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. S. Baek, K. U. Lee, E. J. Joo, M. Y. Lee, and K. S. Choi, “Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale,” Psychiatry Investigation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 109–115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Ö. Karairmak, “Establishing the psychometric qualities of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in a trauma survivor sample,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 350–356, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Izadinia, M. Amiri, R. G. Jahromi, and S. Hamidi, “A study of relationship between suicidal ideas, depression, anxiety, resiliency, daily stresses and mental health among Tehran university students,” in Proceedings of the World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance (WCPCG '10), vol. 5, pp. 1615–1619, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Ahmad, A. Feder, E. J. Lee et al., “Earthquake impact in a remote south asian population: psychosocial factors and posttraumatic symptoms,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 408–412, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Vetter, I. Dulaev, M. Mueller, R. R. Henley, W. T. Gallo, and Z. Kanukova, “Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege,” Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, vol. 4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. S. Fincham, L. K. Altes, D. J. Stein, and S. Seedat, “Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents: risk factors versus resilience moderation,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 193–199, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Kovacs, Children's Depression Inventory Manual, Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda, NY, USA, 1992.
  48. T. F. E. Ahmad and N. Shuriquie, “Psychological sequelae of emotional abuse in institutionalized children,” Arab Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 36–42, 2001.
  49. E. M. Al-Balhan, “The children's depression inventory as a reliable measure for post-iraqi invasion Kuwaiti youth,” Social Behavior and Personality, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 351–366, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Liss, V. Phares, and L. Liljequist, “Symptom endorsement differences on the children's depression inventory with children and adolescents on an inpatient unit,” Journal of Personality Assessment, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 396–411, 2001. View at Scopus
  51. C. L. Rivera, G. Bernal, and J. Rosselló, “The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): their validity as screening measures for major depression in a group of Puerto Rican adolescents,” International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 485–498, 2005. View at Scopus
  52. R. Goodman, “The extended version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a guide to child psychiatric caseness and consequent burden,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 791–799, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. H. Almaqrami and A. Y. Shuwail, “Validity of the self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in Yemen,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 592–601, 2004. View at Scopus
  54. W. Woerner, A. Becker, and A. Rothenberger, “Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 13, supplement 2, pp. ii3–ii10, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Woerner, B. Fleitlich-Bilyk, R. Martinussen et al., “The strengths and difficulties questionnaire overseas: evaluations and applications of the SDQ beyond Europe,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 13, supplement 2, pp. ii47–ii54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. D. Bilanakis, E. E. Pappas, D. Lecic-Tosevski, and D. B. Alexiou, “Children of war fostered by Greek families for six months: the effect of the programme on children and foster mothers,” European Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 215–222, 1999. View at Scopus
  57. A. Daud, B. af Klinteberg, and P. A. Rydelius, “Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents,” Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, vol. 2, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. I. Derluyn and E. Broekaert, “Different perspectives on emotional and behavioural problems in unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents,” Ethnicity and Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 141–162, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Fazel and A. Stein, “Mental health of refugee children: comparative study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 327, no. 7407, p. 134, 2003. View at Scopus
  60. G. Leavy, K. Hollins, M. King, J. Barnes, C. Papadopoulos, and K. Grayson, “Psychological disorder amongst refugee and migrant schoolchildren in London,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 191–195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. G. Sawyer, F. M. Arney, P. A. Baghurst et al., “The mental health of young people in Australia: key findings from the child and adolescent component of the national survey of mental health and well-being,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 806–814, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. G. Sawyer, R. J. Kosky, B. W. Graetz, F. Arney, S. R. Zubrick, and P. Baghurst, “The national survey of mental health and wellbeing: the child and adolescent component,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 214–220, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Ziaian, H. de Anstiss, G. Antoniou, P. Baghurst, and M. Sawyer, “Emotional and behavioural problems among refugee children and adolescents living in South Australia,” Australian Psychologist. In press.
  64. C. Mels, I. Derluyn, E. Broekaert, and Y. Rosseel, “The psychological impact of forced displacement and related risk factors on Eastern Congolese adolescents affected by war,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1096–1104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Roy, M. Sarchiapone, and V. Carli, “Low resilience in suicide attempters,” Archives of Suicide Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 265–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus