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International Journal of Population Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 940509, 9 pages
Research Article

Women’s Education, Family Planning, or Both? Application of Multistate Demographic Projections in India

1National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
2Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10017, USA

Received 22 August 2013; Revised 8 December 2013; Accepted 12 December 2013; Published 9 January 2014

Academic Editor: Sidney R. Schuler

Copyright © 2014 Leiwen Jiang and Karen Hardee. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Is education the best contraceptive? Using the multistate human capital projection model, our analysis shows that the projected changes in India population vary depending on investments in education and helping women reduce unwanted fertility rates, that investments in both education and helping women in each education category—but particularly less educated women—meet their wanted fertility will have the largest impacts on India’s population projections, and that the impact from investment in reducing unwanted fertility will be much more immediate and significant than only investments in education. Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. More importantly, investment in girls’ education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India’s population education level and improve its overall values of human capital.