International Journal of Population Research http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Beyond Networks: Health, Crime, and Migration in Mexico Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:20:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/971739/ Two rounds of a longitudinal survey from Mexico, representative at the national, urban, rural, and regional level, are used to examine the determinants of local, domestic, and international migration. Aside from the typical covariates in the migration decision, this study considers health conditions, crime, and individual’s perspectives on life as explanatory variables. Coefficient estimates for most health variables do not offer significant support to the healthy migrant hypothesis. In terms of crime, the results suggest that females respond to worsening safety conditions in Mexico by migrating domestically, but not abroad. The decision to migrate domestically or abroad for males is not statistically correlated with increases in crime. Overall, having access to international migration networks continues to play a significant role in the decision to migrate to the US. Jose N. Martinez Copyright © 2014 Jose N. Martinez. All rights reserved. Emigration, Immigration, and Skill Formation: The Case of a Midstream Country Mon, 30 Jun 2014 09:45:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/858460/ This study theoretically investigates the economy of a small country that exports skilled labor to higher developed countries and simultaneously imports unskilled labor from lower developed countries. Compared with the free immigration case, if this country adopts an optimally controlled immigration policy by imposing income tax on immigrants to maximize national income, skills formation is negatively affected and the number of domestic unskilled workers increases. Moreover, under certain conditions, we can assert the counter-intuitive possibility that the wage rate of domestic unskilled workers may decrease but that of skilled workers may increase owing to the restriction of foreign unskilled workers. Kenji Kondoh Copyright © 2014 Kenji Kondoh. All rights reserved. Increasing Longevity and the New Demography of Death Tue, 24 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/521523/ The world is ageing at both an individual and population levels and population ageing is truly a global phenomenon, the only notable region of exception being sub-Saharan Africa, which remains relatively young in demographic terms. At an individual level, life expectancies at birth have increased at the global level from 47 years in the mid-20th century to around 70 years today and are expected to rise to 76 years by the mid-21st century. At the population level, the proportion of the world’s population aged 60 years and over has increased from 8 percent in the mid-20th century to 12 percent, and by 2050, it is expected to reach 21 percent. In Europe, ageing has continued at a slower rate, but with the emergence of increasing numbers of centenarians. This paper outlines the transition using data from England and Wales from a demography of young death in the mid-19th century to a demography of survival in the 20th century and on to the new demography of old death in the 21st century. The paper provides evidence that it is likely that ages at death will continue to increase, with more and more people reaching extreme old age. At the same time, it is likely that life expectancies at birth will continue to rise, taking life expectancy at birth in England and Wales to 100 years or more by the end of the 21st century. The new 21st century demography of death will lead to annual numbers of deaths far in excess of previous maxima. George W. Leeson Copyright © 2014 George W. Leeson. All rights reserved. Measures for Human Reproduction Should Be Linked to Both Men and Women Tue, 10 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/908385/ We introduce the two-sex net reproduction rate (2SNRR) and the two-sex total fertility rate (2STFR)—two demographic indicators that reflect the number of children born, given age specific fertility and mortality of the adults. The main quality of these indicators is that they measure the childbearing behaviour of both women and men. The indicators have intuitive value, since they tell us to what extent adults are replaced by children. While the traditional net reproduction rate (NRR) describes general replacement trends among women only, the 2SNRR is an indicator of a population’s growth potential, irrespective of sex. We demonstrate the use of the indicators with data from Bejsce parish in Poland for the period 1800–1967 and with data from UN projections for China for future years. We discuss the consequences for our understanding of fertility trends when sex ratios deviate from normal levels. Nico Keilman, Krzysztof Tymicki, and Vegard Skirbekk Copyright © 2014 Nico Keilman et al. All rights reserved. An Exploratory Study of the Nature and Extent of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among College Women Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:41:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/879269/ This study assessed the extent and nature of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 165 students attending an all-women’s college. Associations between NSSI behaviors and demographics, borderline personality disorder (BPD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attachment styles were investigated. Statistically significant relationships between the severity of NSSI and demographic characteristics and BPD and PTSD were explored using bivariate analysis. Within this population, presence of NSSI behavior was significantly associated with age, years in college, nonheterosexual orientation, BPD, PTSD, and preoccupied attachment styles. There were also marginally significant associations with race and financial status. Severity of NSSI behaviors was significantly associated with age, years in college, BPD pathology, and primary parent’s level of education. A logistic regression analysis was developed that predicted NSSI behavior with 67% accuracy based on these findings. This study has implications for clinical practice. Efrosini D. Kokaliari Copyright © 2014 Efrosini D. Kokaliari. All rights reserved. Variations in Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility in East Africa Tue, 27 May 2014 06:51:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/486079/ This contribution studies the variation in desired family size and excess fertility in four East African countries by analyzing the combined impact of wealth, education, religious affiliation, and place of residence. The findings show an enormous heterogeneity in Kenya. Wealthy and higher educated people have fertility desires close to replacement level, regardless of religion, while poor, uneducated people, particularly those in Muslim communities, have virtually uncontrolled fertility. Rwanda is at the other extreme: poor, uneducated people have the same desired fertility as their wealthy, educated compatriots, regardless of their religion—a case of “poverty Malthusianism.”. The potential for family planning is high in both countries as more than 50% of the women having 5 children or more would have preferred to stop at 4 or less. Tanzania and Uganda have an intermediate position in desired family size and a lower potential for family planning. Generally, the main factor that sustains higher fertility is poverty exacerbated by religious norms among the poor only. Dieudonné Ndaruhuye Muhoza, Annelet Broekhuis, and Pieter Hooimeijer Copyright © 2014 Dieudonné Ndaruhuye Muhoza et al. All rights reserved. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward Mon, 26 May 2014 08:13:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/416457/ Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP) programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9%) of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies. Ademola Adelekan, Philomena Omoregie, and Elizabeth Edoni Copyright © 2014 Ademola Adelekan et al. All rights reserved. Developing an Estimate of Supported Housing Needs for Persons with Serious Mental Illnesses Sun, 27 Apr 2014 13:15:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/245024/ A rich body of literature attests to the importance of affordable accommodation and support services necessary, appropriate, and acceptable to persons disabled by a mental illness. However, there is a little which provides a means for housing and service planners to determine the gap between available supportive housing and need. Such understandings are needed to prepare strategies and develop the resources needed to accommodate persons with a disabling mental illness in the community. While housing studies that examine shelter needs of the homeless acknowledge that a sizable proportion has a disabling mental illness, these numbers underestimate need in the cohort that experiences disabling mental illnesses. This underestimate exists because many of those who are disabled by mental illness and in need of supportive housing are among the hidden homeless: doubled-up, couch-surfing, and temporarily sheltered by friends and family. Thus, little is known about the size of this cohort or their supportive shelter needs. The present analysis examines two approaches and offers one methodology as most feasible and parsimonious which can approximate housing need and may be extrapolated to other urban locations. Jeannette Waegemakers Schiff, Rebecca Schiff, and Barbara Schneider Copyright © 2014 Jeannette Waegemakers Schiff et al. All rights reserved. Gender Socialization: Differences between Male and Female Youth in India and Associations with Mental Health Sun, 27 Apr 2014 08:09:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/357145/ This paper describes patterns of gender socialization among youth in India and evaluates how these patterns are associated with their mental health. Data come from the Youth in India: Situation and Needs Study (), a subnationally representative survey conducted during 2006–2008. Descriptive results underscored the gendered nature of socialization experiences, showing that male and female youth inhabit different social worlds. Female youth expressed more gender-egalitarian attitudes than male youth but reported greater restrictions to their independence than male youth. Male youth recognized more gender-discriminatory practices within their households than did the female youth. Poisson models revealed that female youth experienced more mental health problems when their households engaged in practices that favoured males over females, even as these same practices were associated with fewer mental health problems among male youth. Family violence and restrictions to independence were associated with mental health problems for both male and female youth. When males and females engaged in behaviours contravening sex-specific gender norms, there were corresponding increases in mental health problems for both sexes. Together, these findings suggest that gender inequality permeates family life in India, with corresponding consequences for the mental well-being of male and female youth. Usha Ram, Lisa Strohschein, and Kirti Gaur Copyright © 2014 Usha Ram et al. All rights reserved. The Association between a History of Parental Addictions and Arthritis in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Survey Sun, 23 Mar 2014 15:07:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/582508/ Aims. To examine the relationship between a history of parental addictions and the cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis while controlling for age, sex, race, and four clusters of risk factors: (1) other adverse childhood experiences, (2) adult health behaviors (i.e., smoking, obesity, inactivity, and alcohol consumption), (3) adult socioeconomic status and (4) mental health. Materials and Methods. Secondary analysis of 13,036 Manitoba and Saskatchewan respondents of the population-based 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings. After controlling for demographic characteristics, including age, gender, and race, respondents who reported a history of parental addictions had significantly higher odds of arthritis in comparison to individuals without (; 95% CI 1.38–1.80). Adjustment for socioeconomic status, adult health behaviors, and mental health conditions had little impact on the parental addictions and arthritis relationship. The association between parental addictions and arthritis was substantially reduced when adverse childhood experiences (; 95% CI 1.15–1.53) and all four groups of risk factors collectively (; 95% CI = 1.12–1.51) were included in the analyses; however, the relationship remained statistically significant. Conclusions. A robust association was found between parental addictions and cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis. This link remained even when controlling for four groups of potential risk factors. Esme Fuller-Thomson, Jessica P. Liddycoat, and Maria Stefanyk Copyright © 2014 Esme Fuller-Thomson et al. All rights reserved. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana Tue, 11 Mar 2014 09:25:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/404387/ Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1) had safe cord care, 5.2% (21) optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203) were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC), and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28), . Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS) to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities. Mahama Saaka and Mariam Iddrisu Copyright © 2014 Mahama Saaka and Mariam Iddrisu. All rights reserved. Neonatal Death and National Income in Developing Countries: Will Economic Growth Reduce Deaths in the First Month of Life? Sun, 02 Feb 2014 14:05:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/989485/ The relationship between national income and child mortality has been understood for many years. However, what is less well known is whether the association differs for neonatal mortality compared to postneonatal and early childhood deaths. Our study extends knowledge by analysing the relationship between gross national income (GNI) and neonatal, postneonatal, and early child mortality. The study draws on mortality estimates from Demographic and Household Surveys and World Bank data for GNI. It uses multivariate multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between GNI and neonatal, postneonatal, and early child mortality rates (NMR, PNMR, and ECMR) using cross-sectional data from 65 countries and trend data from 49 countries. No significant relationship can be found between NMR and GNI for cross-sectional data once adjusted for region. The trend data confirms that increases over time in GNI are associated with lower reductions in NMR than other component rates. Thus, economic growth alone may have a weaker effect on reducing neonatal deaths than for older age groups; achieving improvements in neonatal mortality requires investment in maternal and new born health services alongside growth. Sarah Neal and Jane Falkingham Copyright © 2014 Sarah Neal and Jane Falkingham. All rights reserved. Changes in Fertility Decline in Rwanda: A Decomposition Analysis Thu, 16 Jan 2014 13:17:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/486210/ After having stalled in the 1990s, fertility in Rwanda resumed its downward trajectory between 2005 and 2010. The total fertility rate declined from 6.1 to 4.6 and modern contraceptive use increased. However, it is unclear which determinants lay behind the previous stall and the recent strong drop in fertility. This paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the impact of social upheavals on fertility decline. We use a decomposition analysis, focusing on the change in characteristics and reproductive behaviour of women and their contributions to levels of fertility during 1992–2000 and 2000–2010. Results show that due to widowhood and separation the proportion of women who were married decreased between 1992 and 2000, but their fertility increased in the same period due to replacement fertility and an unmet need for family planning. After 2000, postponement of marriage and lower infant mortality contributed to lower fertility, but the most important effect is the overall lower fertility due not only to improved family planning provision but perhaps also to the sensitizing campaigns of the Rwandan government. Pierre Claver Rutayisire, Pieter Hooimeijer, and Annelet Broekhuis Copyright © 2014 Pierre Claver Rutayisire et al. All rights reserved. Women’s Education, Family Planning, or Both? Application of Multistate Demographic Projections in India Thu, 09 Jan 2014 13:53:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/940509/ Is education the best contraceptive? Using the multistate human capital projection model, our analysis shows that the projected changes in India population vary depending on investments in education and helping women reduce unwanted fertility rates, that investments in both education and helping women in each education category—but particularly less educated women—meet their wanted fertility will have the largest impacts on India’s population projections, and that the impact from investment in reducing unwanted fertility will be much more immediate and significant than only investments in education. Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. More importantly, investment in girls’ education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India’s population education level and improve its overall values of human capital. Leiwen Jiang and Karen Hardee Copyright © 2014 Leiwen Jiang and Karen Hardee. All rights reserved. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research Sun, 29 Dec 2013 18:01:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/624245/ Background. HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods. Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results. Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (≥30 years) Black MSM (, ). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion. The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. Paula M. Frew, Victoria A. Williams, Eve T. Shapiro, Travis Sanchez, Eli S. Rosenberg, Vincent L. Fenimore, and Patrick S. Sullivan Copyright © 2013 Paula M. Frew et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Mortality and Female Literacy Rates in Developing Countries during 1970–2000: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:24:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/163292/ Background. The gross longitudinal relationship between female literacy and maternal mortality ratios has not been adequately investigated even though the knowledge of the relationship is crucial for designing maternal mortality reduction programs through female literacy campaigns and improvements. The objective of the study was to examine the dynamic relationship between female literacy and mortality ratios. A longitudinal study design spanning three decades, 1970–2000, was used. Country level data on 143 nations belonging to six geographical regions for the duration 1970–2000 were secured from websites hosted by global agencies such as World Bank and the United Nations were utilized. Maternal mortality ratios (1970–2000) ranged from 147 to 271 across the six regions. The longitudinal relationship between female literacy rates and maternal mortality ratios was examined using a latent growth curve approach. The study found that rates of change in female literacy and maternal mortality ratios are negatively related. Steady rates of increase in female literacy were associated with declining maternal mortality ratios as well. We find that female literacy programs are of immense value in reducing maternal mortality ratios given their ability to yield sustained reductions in mortality levels in developing countries. Vijayan K. Pillai, Arati Maleku, and FangHsun Wei Copyright © 2013 Vijayan K. Pillai et al. All rights reserved. Smoking Cessation in Long-Term Conditions: Is There “An Opportunity in Every Difficulty”? Sun, 08 Dec 2013 09:36:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/251048/ Introduction. Smoking plays a causal role in several long-term conditions and worsens their outcomes. Focusing on six such conditions, we present a narrative review of seminal studies on the prevalence and impact of continued tobacco use on these conditions; the effectiveness of cessation interventions; the extent to which patients receive these interventions, and barriers to providing and taking up these interventions. Methods. A conceptual framework was used to identify questions for a series of focused literature reviews. Findings were synthesized and the literature was examined to identify themes common across these conditions. Results. Smoking prevalence is either similar or higher in patients with established long-term conditions compared to the general population. Continued smoking accelerates disease progression, worsens outcomes, and risks poor treatment compliance or further complications. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of cessation interventions in achieving smoking abstinence. Despite this, only a small proportion of patients receive such interventions. Important barriers to uptake include concerns about weight management and drug safety, higher nicotine dependency and codependency, comorbidity, and misperceptions about the benefits of cessation. Conclusion. The benefits of offering smoking cessation in patients with long-term conditions are far too great for it to remain of a low priority. Kamran Siddiqi, Omara F. Dogar, and Najma Siddiqi Copyright © 2013 Kamran Siddiqi et al. All rights reserved. Longer Life and Higher Fertility in an OLG Economy with Production Tue, 05 Nov 2013 11:15:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/207313/ This paper investigates the effect of a change in life expectancy (i.e., longevity) on fertility in a standard OLG economy. The main result is that, in contrast with other papers, an increase in the longevity rate may increase the fertility rate as well. It is shown that such a result holds when the cost of rearing children in terms of goods and services (rather than in terms of forgone wages) matters. In particular, such a result depends on the relative “strength” of the capital in the technology as compared with the “strength” of the parsimony. Moreover it is shown, again in contrast with other papers, that with an unfunded social security system it is more likely that a longer life may increase the fertility. The latter result is even more likely in the presence of child subsidy policies, which are widespread in developed countries. In conclusion, we argue that in countries having a population with a high longevity, a high capital share, a large unfunded social security, and child subsidy policies (such as Italy), a further increase of longevity may increase fertility in the long run and thus partially alleviate the peril of the so-called “demographic bomb.” Luciano Fanti Copyright © 2013 Luciano Fanti. All rights reserved. Mortality from Diabetes by Hispanic Groups: Evidence from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study Sat, 26 Oct 2013 10:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/571306/ Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, especially in minority communities. In mortality research, Hispanics are frequently studied as a homogeneous group. The present study was undertaken to compare diabetes deaths among persons of Hispanic origin by disaggregating groups in order to determine whether the components in the Hispanic label have differential mortality. Data utilized were from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to the data. Findings showed that individuals in the broader Hispanic label were 28% more likely to die from diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic whites (ARR = 1.28, CI = 1.05, 1.55). When groups were broken down, it was observed that Mexicans were 50% more likely to die of diabetes than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. No other Hispanic origin group was significantly associated with diabetes mortality risk. Education and family income were strong predictors of mortality, regardless of Hispanic origin grouping. It was concluded from the analysis that future behavioral and social science research would be more informative if the broader Hispanic label was broken down into subcategories. Failure to do so might lead to drawing false inferences as a finding may well hold for one group within the Hispanic label, but not for others. Augustine J. Kposowa Copyright © 2013 Augustine J. Kposowa. All rights reserved. The Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Communities of Southeastern Nigeria Mon, 09 Sep 2013 14:42:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/610193/ This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews. Six rural local government areas (LGAs) were selected based on population size and spatial equity from two states of Southeastern Nigeria. From each of the rural LGAs, fifty migrant-sending households were sampled for the study. Multiple regression and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to estimate and categorize the effects of rural-urban migration due to remittances and community projects executed by the rural-urban migrants, respectively. In addition, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized in prioritizing areas for development interventions in the rural communities. The regression analysis shows that rural-urban migration contributes significantly towards the development of their rural communities through monetary remittances and the involvement of the rural-urban migrants in community development projects. Based on the findings, recommendations such as initiation of development projects based on the identified needs of each of the rural communities to augment the effects of migration in the study area are made. Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero and Patience C. Onokala Copyright © 2013 Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero and Patience C. Onokala. All rights reserved. Intergenerational Differences in Current Contraceptive Use among Married Women in Uganda Wed, 07 Aug 2013 09:27:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/329390/ We analyze variations in contraceptive use and age cohort effects of women born from 1957 to 1991 based on the hypothesis that individuals born at different time periods experience different socio-economic circumstances. Differential exposure to socioeconomic circumstances may influence women's attitudes and behavior towards critical life issues such as contraceptive use. We use data from the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey by limiting the analysis to 5,362 women who were currently married (or cohabiting) at the time of the survey. Logistic regression analyses show a higher likelihood of contraceptive use among older cohorts than younger cohorts. These results call for interventions that target young women to reduce fertility and reproductive health challenges associated with too many or too closely spaced births. Although variations in age cohorts are critical in influencing current contraceptive use, other factors such as wealth status, education level, and place of residence are equally important. Thus, interventions that focused on selected regions (e.g., the North and the West Nile), rural communities, and efforts to increase literacy levels will accelerate uptake of contraception and improve maternal and child health. Sarah M. Wablembo and Henry V. Doctor Copyright © 2013 Sarah M. Wablembo and Henry V. Doctor. All rights reserved. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months? Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:09:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/304169/ Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS). Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth) but not acute malnutrition (wasting) with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94). Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet. Mahama Saaka and Shaibu Mohammed Osman Copyright © 2013 Mahama Saaka and Shaibu Mohammed Osman. All rights reserved. Fertility Decline in Rwanda: Is Gender Preference in the Way? Thu, 06 Jun 2013 09:40:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/787149/ In 2007 Rwanda launched a campaign to promote 3 children families and a program of community based health services to improve reproductive health. This paper argues that mixed gender offspring is still an important insurance for old age in Rwanda and that to arrive at the desired gender composition women might have to progress beyond parity 3. The analyses are twofold. The first is the parity progression desire given the gender of living children. The second is gender specific replacement intention following the loss of the last or only son or daughter. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys of 2000, 2005, and 2010, we show that child mortality does not lead to extra parity progression beyond three, while having single gender offspring does and even more so when this is the result of the loss of the last son or daughter. Ignace Habimana Kabano, Annelet Broekhuis, and Pieter Hooimeijer Copyright © 2013 Ignace Habimana Kabano et al. All rights reserved. Unintentional Injuries among School-Aged Children in Palestine: Findings from the National Study of Palestinian Schoolchildren (HBSC-WBG2006) Mon, 18 Mar 2013 13:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/629159/ Purpose. This study describes the nonfatal injuries among adolescents in Palestine. Methods. The 2006 Palestinian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a cross-sectional survey. Students of grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 completed a modified version of the international HBSC questionnaire, resulting in 15,963 students (47.3% boys and 52.7% girls) included in this study (56.9% from the West Bank and 43.1% from Gaza). Results. Of the total 15,963 adolescents, 47.6% were injured, with boys (53.5%) being statistically higher than girls (42.1%) (). The prevalence of those injured more than once decreased by age and was also found significantly higher in boys than in girls (27.3% and 17.9%, resp.) (). Children living in low FAS families showed significantly lower ratios of injuries than those living in moderate and high FAS families (). Injuries while biking were significantly higher among boys (46.3%) than girls (41.7%) (), and injuries while walking/running were more prevalent among girls (32.5%) than boys (28.0%) (). Conclusion. Despite these considerably high rates, injury remains relatively underappreciated. Results of this study are useful to develop a national injury prevention program aimed at enhancing the safety of Palestinian adolescents. Christine Jildeh, Ziad Abdeen, Haleama Al Sabbah, and Anastas Philalithis Copyright © 2013 Christine Jildeh et al. All rights reserved. Cultural Inheritance and Fertility Outcomes: An Analysis from Evolutionary and Interdisciplinary Perspectives Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:15:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/340719/ Taking evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspectives, this study views the reproductive result as an evolutionary outcome that may be affected by parental characteristics through cultural inheritance. We hypothesize that inheriting more cultural traits from parents leads to a greater resemblance between fertility outcomes of the offspring and their parents. In societies that experience a demographic transition, a greater resemblance can be indicated by a higher level of fertility of the offspring and a sooner transition from union formation to childbearing. We operationalize inheriting cultural traits from parents as reporting a religious affiliation the same as those of their parents. Through analyzing data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 6, our results show that inheriting the same religious traits from parents does have an effect on one’s fertility. In particular, women who reported the same religious affiliations as those of their parents reported a greater number of children. They tend to have births inside, rather than outside, of marriage. Inside marriage, they are also more likely to give births sooner, rather than later. These findings support our hypotheses and help to build a theoretical framework that explains the changes in fertility outcomes from an interdisciplinary perspective. Li Zhang, Dudley L. Poston Jr., Michael S. Alvard, and Christopher Cherry Copyright © 2013 Li Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Children and Youth Mon, 12 Nov 2012 10:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/894945/ Cherylynn Bassani Copyright © 2012 Cherylynn Bassani. All rights reserved. Forecast Accuracy and Uncertainty of Australian Bureau of Statistics State and Territory Population Projections Thu, 08 Nov 2012 08:03:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/419824/ Errors from past rounds of population projections can provide both diagnostic information to improve future projections as well as information for users on the likely uncertainty of current projections. This paper assesses the forecast accuracy of official Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) population projections for the states and territories of Australia and is the first major study to do so. For the states and territories, it is found that, after 10-year projection durations, absolute percentage errors lie between about 1% and 3% for the states and around 6% for the territories. Age-specific population projections are also assessed. It is shown that net interstate migration and net overseas migration are the demographic components of change which contributed most to forecast error. The paper also compares ABS projections of total population against simple linear extrapolation, finding that, overall, ABS projections just outperformed extrapolation. No identifiable trend in accuracy over time is detected. Under the assumption of temporal stability in the magnitude of error, empirical prediction intervals are created from past errors and applied to the current set of ABS projections. The paper concludes with a few ideas for future projection rounds. Tom Wilson Copyright © 2012 Tom Wilson. All rights reserved. Transnational Involvement: Reading Quantitative Studies in Light of Qualitative Data Wed, 31 Oct 2012 16:08:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/580819/ Studies of migrant transnationalism are dominated by qualitative case studies. To take the field further, there is a need for more quantitative studies and for connecting quantitative and qualitative studies through a reiterative feedback loop. In order to contribute to this, we take two refined and original quantitative studies, one by Snel et al. and one by Portes et al., as a vantage point, commenting on the authors’ organization of analytical categories and their operationalization of key concepts, in light of our own, qualitative data. These data come from a research project, EUMARGINS, where we analyze processes of inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants and descendants in seven European countries, using participant observation and life-story interviews in combination with statistical data. We conclude that the process whereby young migrants identify themselves in terms of ethnicity and belonging is context-specific, multidimensional, and hard to study quantitatively. Erlend Paasche and Katrine Fangen Copyright © 2012 Erlend Paasche and Katrine Fangen. All rights reserved. Mapping Heat Health Risks in Urban Areas Mon, 24 Sep 2012 15:53:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/518687/ Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial variation in heat-related health outcomes in urban Melbourne. The index was weighted using measured health outcomes during heatwave periods. The index was then mapped to produce a spatial representation of risk. The key risk factors were identified as areas with aged care facilities, higher proportions of older people living alone, living in suburban rather than inner city areas, and areas with larger proportions of people who spoke a language other than English at home. The maps of spatial vulnerability provide information to target heat-related health risks by aiding policy advisors, urban planners, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services to develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale. Margaret Loughnan, Neville Nicholls, and Nigel J. Tapper Copyright © 2012 Margaret Loughnan et al. All rights reserved. Budgetary Expenditure on Health and Human Development in India Tue, 18 Sep 2012 08:15:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/914808/ This study aims at analyzing the differentials across rich and poor states and across rich and poorer strata and rural urban segments of 19 major Indian states. The study indicates that besides individual health financing policies of the respective state governments, there are significant disparities even between rural and urban strata and rich and poorer sections of the society. These are indicated by high inequality coefficients and an emerging pattern of life style second generation health problems as well as levels of utilization of both preventive and curative care both in public and private sectors. Our results emphasise that there is a need to increase public expenditure on health, improve efficiency in utilization of existing public facilities, and popularize government run health insurance schemes meant primarily for the poor. These steps may help to mitigate partly the inequitable outcomes. Brijesh C. Purohit Copyright © 2012 Brijesh C. Purohit. All rights reserved.