International Journal of Population Research http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Association between a History of Parental Addictions and Arthritis in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Survey Sun, 23 Mar 2014 15:07:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/582508/ Aims. To examine the relationship between a history of parental addictions and the cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis while controlling for age, sex, race, and four clusters of risk factors: (1) other adverse childhood experiences, (2) adult health behaviors (i.e., smoking, obesity, inactivity, and alcohol consumption), (3) adult socioeconomic status and (4) mental health. Materials and Methods. Secondary analysis of 13,036 Manitoba and Saskatchewan respondents of the population-based 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings. After controlling for demographic characteristics, including age, gender, and race, respondents who reported a history of parental addictions had significantly higher odds of arthritis in comparison to individuals without (; 95% CI 1.38–1.80). Adjustment for socioeconomic status, adult health behaviors, and mental health conditions had little impact on the parental addictions and arthritis relationship. The association between parental addictions and arthritis was substantially reduced when adverse childhood experiences (; 95% CI 1.15–1.53) and all four groups of risk factors collectively (; 95% CI = 1.12–1.51) were included in the analyses; however, the relationship remained statistically significant. Conclusions. A robust association was found between parental addictions and cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis. This link remained even when controlling for four groups of potential risk factors. Esme Fuller-Thomson, Jessica P. Liddycoat, and Maria Stefanyk Copyright © 2014 Esme Fuller-Thomson et al. All rights reserved. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana Tue, 11 Mar 2014 09:25:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/404387/ Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1) had safe cord care, 5.2% (21) optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203) were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC), and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28), . Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS) to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities. Mahama Saaka and Mariam Iddrisu Copyright © 2014 Mahama Saaka and Mariam Iddrisu. All rights reserved. Neonatal Death and National Income in Developing Countries: Will Economic Growth Reduce Deaths in the First Month of Life? Sun, 02 Feb 2014 14:05:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/989485/ The relationship between national income and child mortality has been understood for many years. However, what is less well known is whether the association differs for neonatal mortality compared to postneonatal and early childhood deaths. Our study extends knowledge by analysing the relationship between gross national income (GNI) and neonatal, postneonatal, and early child mortality. The study draws on mortality estimates from Demographic and Household Surveys and World Bank data for GNI. It uses multivariate multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between GNI and neonatal, postneonatal, and early child mortality rates (NMR, PNMR, and ECMR) using cross-sectional data from 65 countries and trend data from 49 countries. No significant relationship can be found between NMR and GNI for cross-sectional data once adjusted for region. The trend data confirms that increases over time in GNI are associated with lower reductions in NMR than other component rates. Thus, economic growth alone may have a weaker effect on reducing neonatal deaths than for older age groups; achieving improvements in neonatal mortality requires investment in maternal and new born health services alongside growth. Sarah Neal and Jane Falkingham Copyright © 2014 Sarah Neal and Jane Falkingham. All rights reserved. Changes in Fertility Decline in Rwanda: A Decomposition Analysis Thu, 16 Jan 2014 13:17:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/486210/ After having stalled in the 1990s, fertility in Rwanda resumed its downward trajectory between 2005 and 2010. The total fertility rate declined from 6.1 to 4.6 and modern contraceptive use increased. However, it is unclear which determinants lay behind the previous stall and the recent strong drop in fertility. This paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the impact of social upheavals on fertility decline. We use a decomposition analysis, focusing on the change in characteristics and reproductive behaviour of women and their contributions to levels of fertility during 1992–2000 and 2000–2010. Results show that due to widowhood and separation the proportion of women who were married decreased between 1992 and 2000, but their fertility increased in the same period due to replacement fertility and an unmet need for family planning. After 2000, postponement of marriage and lower infant mortality contributed to lower fertility, but the most important effect is the overall lower fertility due not only to improved family planning provision but perhaps also to the sensitizing campaigns of the Rwandan government. Pierre Claver Rutayisire, Pieter Hooimeijer, and Annelet Broekhuis Copyright © 2014 Pierre Claver Rutayisire et al. All rights reserved. Women’s Education, Family Planning, or Both? Application of Multistate Demographic Projections in India Thu, 09 Jan 2014 13:53:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/940509/ Is education the best contraceptive? Using the multistate human capital projection model, our analysis shows that the projected changes in India population vary depending on investments in education and helping women reduce unwanted fertility rates, that investments in both education and helping women in each education category—but particularly less educated women—meet their wanted fertility will have the largest impacts on India’s population projections, and that the impact from investment in reducing unwanted fertility will be much more immediate and significant than only investments in education. Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. More importantly, investment in girls’ education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India’s population education level and improve its overall values of human capital. Leiwen Jiang and Karen Hardee Copyright © 2014 Leiwen Jiang and Karen Hardee. All rights reserved. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research Sun, 29 Dec 2013 18:01:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/624245/ Background. HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods. Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results. Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (≥30 years) Black MSM (, ). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion. The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. Paula M. Frew, Victoria A. Williams, Eve T. Shapiro, Travis Sanchez, Eli S. Rosenberg, Vincent L. Fenimore, and Patrick S. Sullivan Copyright © 2013 Paula M. Frew et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Mortality and Female Literacy Rates in Developing Countries during 1970–2000: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:24:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/163292/ Background. The gross longitudinal relationship between female literacy and maternal mortality ratios has not been adequately investigated even though the knowledge of the relationship is crucial for designing maternal mortality reduction programs through female literacy campaigns and improvements. The objective of the study was to examine the dynamic relationship between female literacy and mortality ratios. A longitudinal study design spanning three decades, 1970–2000, was used. Country level data on 143 nations belonging to six geographical regions for the duration 1970–2000 were secured from websites hosted by global agencies such as World Bank and the United Nations were utilized. Maternal mortality ratios (1970–2000) ranged from 147 to 271 across the six regions. The longitudinal relationship between female literacy rates and maternal mortality ratios was examined using a latent growth curve approach. The study found that rates of change in female literacy and maternal mortality ratios are negatively related. Steady rates of increase in female literacy were associated with declining maternal mortality ratios as well. We find that female literacy programs are of immense value in reducing maternal mortality ratios given their ability to yield sustained reductions in mortality levels in developing countries. Vijayan K. Pillai, Arati Maleku, and FangHsun Wei Copyright © 2013 Vijayan K. Pillai et al. All rights reserved. Smoking Cessation in Long-Term Conditions: Is There “An Opportunity in Every Difficulty”? Sun, 08 Dec 2013 09:36:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/251048/ Introduction. Smoking plays a causal role in several long-term conditions and worsens their outcomes. Focusing on six such conditions, we present a narrative review of seminal studies on the prevalence and impact of continued tobacco use on these conditions; the effectiveness of cessation interventions; the extent to which patients receive these interventions, and barriers to providing and taking up these interventions. Methods. A conceptual framework was used to identify questions for a series of focused literature reviews. Findings were synthesized and the literature was examined to identify themes common across these conditions. Results. Smoking prevalence is either similar or higher in patients with established long-term conditions compared to the general population. Continued smoking accelerates disease progression, worsens outcomes, and risks poor treatment compliance or further complications. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of cessation interventions in achieving smoking abstinence. Despite this, only a small proportion of patients receive such interventions. Important barriers to uptake include concerns about weight management and drug safety, higher nicotine dependency and codependency, comorbidity, and misperceptions about the benefits of cessation. Conclusion. The benefits of offering smoking cessation in patients with long-term conditions are far too great for it to remain of a low priority. Kamran Siddiqi, Omara F. Dogar, and Najma Siddiqi Copyright © 2013 Kamran Siddiqi et al. All rights reserved. Longer Life and Higher Fertility in an OLG Economy with Production Tue, 05 Nov 2013 11:15:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/207313/ This paper investigates the effect of a change in life expectancy (i.e., longevity) on fertility in a standard OLG economy. The main result is that, in contrast with other papers, an increase in the longevity rate may increase the fertility rate as well. It is shown that such a result holds when the cost of rearing children in terms of goods and services (rather than in terms of forgone wages) matters. In particular, such a result depends on the relative “strength” of the capital in the technology as compared with the “strength” of the parsimony. Moreover it is shown, again in contrast with other papers, that with an unfunded social security system it is more likely that a longer life may increase the fertility. The latter result is even more likely in the presence of child subsidy policies, which are widespread in developed countries. In conclusion, we argue that in countries having a population with a high longevity, a high capital share, a large unfunded social security, and child subsidy policies (such as Italy), a further increase of longevity may increase fertility in the long run and thus partially alleviate the peril of the so-called “demographic bomb.” Luciano Fanti Copyright © 2013 Luciano Fanti. All rights reserved. Mortality from Diabetes by Hispanic Groups: Evidence from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study Sat, 26 Oct 2013 10:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/571306/ Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, especially in minority communities. In mortality research, Hispanics are frequently studied as a homogeneous group. The present study was undertaken to compare diabetes deaths among persons of Hispanic origin by disaggregating groups in order to determine whether the components in the Hispanic label have differential mortality. Data utilized were from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to the data. Findings showed that individuals in the broader Hispanic label were 28% more likely to die from diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic whites (ARR = 1.28, CI = 1.05, 1.55). When groups were broken down, it was observed that Mexicans were 50% more likely to die of diabetes than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. No other Hispanic origin group was significantly associated with diabetes mortality risk. Education and family income were strong predictors of mortality, regardless of Hispanic origin grouping. It was concluded from the analysis that future behavioral and social science research would be more informative if the broader Hispanic label was broken down into subcategories. Failure to do so might lead to drawing false inferences as a finding may well hold for one group within the Hispanic label, but not for others. Augustine J. Kposowa Copyright © 2013 Augustine J. Kposowa. All rights reserved. The Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Communities of Southeastern Nigeria Mon, 09 Sep 2013 14:42:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/610193/ This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews. Six rural local government areas (LGAs) were selected based on population size and spatial equity from two states of Southeastern Nigeria. From each of the rural LGAs, fifty migrant-sending households were sampled for the study. Multiple regression and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to estimate and categorize the effects of rural-urban migration due to remittances and community projects executed by the rural-urban migrants, respectively. In addition, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized in prioritizing areas for development interventions in the rural communities. The regression analysis shows that rural-urban migration contributes significantly towards the development of their rural communities through monetary remittances and the involvement of the rural-urban migrants in community development projects. Based on the findings, recommendations such as initiation of development projects based on the identified needs of each of the rural communities to augment the effects of migration in the study area are made. Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero and Patience C. Onokala Copyright © 2013 Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero and Patience C. Onokala. All rights reserved. Intergenerational Differences in Current Contraceptive Use among Married Women in Uganda Wed, 07 Aug 2013 09:27:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/329390/ We analyze variations in contraceptive use and age cohort effects of women born from 1957 to 1991 based on the hypothesis that individuals born at different time periods experience different socio-economic circumstances. Differential exposure to socioeconomic circumstances may influence women's attitudes and behavior towards critical life issues such as contraceptive use. We use data from the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey by limiting the analysis to 5,362 women who were currently married (or cohabiting) at the time of the survey. Logistic regression analyses show a higher likelihood of contraceptive use among older cohorts than younger cohorts. These results call for interventions that target young women to reduce fertility and reproductive health challenges associated with too many or too closely spaced births. Although variations in age cohorts are critical in influencing current contraceptive use, other factors such as wealth status, education level, and place of residence are equally important. Thus, interventions that focused on selected regions (e.g., the North and the West Nile), rural communities, and efforts to increase literacy levels will accelerate uptake of contraception and improve maternal and child health. Sarah M. Wablembo and Henry V. Doctor Copyright © 2013 Sarah M. Wablembo and Henry V. Doctor. All rights reserved. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months? Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:09:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/304169/ Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS). Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth) but not acute malnutrition (wasting) with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94). Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet. Mahama Saaka and Shaibu Mohammed Osman Copyright © 2013 Mahama Saaka and Shaibu Mohammed Osman. All rights reserved. Fertility Decline in Rwanda: Is Gender Preference in the Way? Thu, 06 Jun 2013 09:40:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/787149/ In 2007 Rwanda launched a campaign to promote 3 children families and a program of community based health services to improve reproductive health. This paper argues that mixed gender offspring is still an important insurance for old age in Rwanda and that to arrive at the desired gender composition women might have to progress beyond parity 3. The analyses are twofold. The first is the parity progression desire given the gender of living children. The second is gender specific replacement intention following the loss of the last or only son or daughter. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys of 2000, 2005, and 2010, we show that child mortality does not lead to extra parity progression beyond three, while having single gender offspring does and even more so when this is the result of the loss of the last son or daughter. Ignace Habimana Kabano, Annelet Broekhuis, and Pieter Hooimeijer Copyright © 2013 Ignace Habimana Kabano et al. All rights reserved. Unintentional Injuries among School-Aged Children in Palestine: Findings from the National Study of Palestinian Schoolchildren (HBSC-WBG2006) Mon, 18 Mar 2013 13:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/629159/ Purpose. This study describes the nonfatal injuries among adolescents in Palestine. Methods. The 2006 Palestinian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a cross-sectional survey. Students of grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 completed a modified version of the international HBSC questionnaire, resulting in 15,963 students (47.3% boys and 52.7% girls) included in this study (56.9% from the West Bank and 43.1% from Gaza). Results. Of the total 15,963 adolescents, 47.6% were injured, with boys (53.5%) being statistically higher than girls (42.1%) (). The prevalence of those injured more than once decreased by age and was also found significantly higher in boys than in girls (27.3% and 17.9%, resp.) (). Children living in low FAS families showed significantly lower ratios of injuries than those living in moderate and high FAS families (). Injuries while biking were significantly higher among boys (46.3%) than girls (41.7%) (), and injuries while walking/running were more prevalent among girls (32.5%) than boys (28.0%) (). Conclusion. Despite these considerably high rates, injury remains relatively underappreciated. Results of this study are useful to develop a national injury prevention program aimed at enhancing the safety of Palestinian adolescents. Christine Jildeh, Ziad Abdeen, Haleama Al Sabbah, and Anastas Philalithis Copyright © 2013 Christine Jildeh et al. All rights reserved. Cultural Inheritance and Fertility Outcomes: An Analysis from Evolutionary and Interdisciplinary Perspectives Mon, 14 Jan 2013 16:15:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2013/340719/ Taking evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspectives, this study views the reproductive result as an evolutionary outcome that may be affected by parental characteristics through cultural inheritance. We hypothesize that inheriting more cultural traits from parents leads to a greater resemblance between fertility outcomes of the offspring and their parents. In societies that experience a demographic transition, a greater resemblance can be indicated by a higher level of fertility of the offspring and a sooner transition from union formation to childbearing. We operationalize inheriting cultural traits from parents as reporting a religious affiliation the same as those of their parents. Through analyzing data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 6, our results show that inheriting the same religious traits from parents does have an effect on one’s fertility. In particular, women who reported the same religious affiliations as those of their parents reported a greater number of children. They tend to have births inside, rather than outside, of marriage. Inside marriage, they are also more likely to give births sooner, rather than later. These findings support our hypotheses and help to build a theoretical framework that explains the changes in fertility outcomes from an interdisciplinary perspective. Li Zhang, Dudley L. Poston Jr., Michael S. Alvard, and Christopher Cherry Copyright © 2013 Li Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Children and Youth Mon, 12 Nov 2012 10:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/894945/ Cherylynn Bassani Copyright © 2012 Cherylynn Bassani. All rights reserved. Forecast Accuracy and Uncertainty of Australian Bureau of Statistics State and Territory Population Projections Thu, 08 Nov 2012 08:03:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/419824/ Errors from past rounds of population projections can provide both diagnostic information to improve future projections as well as information for users on the likely uncertainty of current projections. This paper assesses the forecast accuracy of official Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) population projections for the states and territories of Australia and is the first major study to do so. For the states and territories, it is found that, after 10-year projection durations, absolute percentage errors lie between about 1% and 3% for the states and around 6% for the territories. Age-specific population projections are also assessed. It is shown that net interstate migration and net overseas migration are the demographic components of change which contributed most to forecast error. The paper also compares ABS projections of total population against simple linear extrapolation, finding that, overall, ABS projections just outperformed extrapolation. No identifiable trend in accuracy over time is detected. Under the assumption of temporal stability in the magnitude of error, empirical prediction intervals are created from past errors and applied to the current set of ABS projections. The paper concludes with a few ideas for future projection rounds. Tom Wilson Copyright © 2012 Tom Wilson. All rights reserved. Transnational Involvement: Reading Quantitative Studies in Light of Qualitative Data Wed, 31 Oct 2012 16:08:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/580819/ Studies of migrant transnationalism are dominated by qualitative case studies. To take the field further, there is a need for more quantitative studies and for connecting quantitative and qualitative studies through a reiterative feedback loop. In order to contribute to this, we take two refined and original quantitative studies, one by Snel et al. and one by Portes et al., as a vantage point, commenting on the authors’ organization of analytical categories and their operationalization of key concepts, in light of our own, qualitative data. These data come from a research project, EUMARGINS, where we analyze processes of inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants and descendants in seven European countries, using participant observation and life-story interviews in combination with statistical data. We conclude that the process whereby young migrants identify themselves in terms of ethnicity and belonging is context-specific, multidimensional, and hard to study quantitatively. Erlend Paasche and Katrine Fangen Copyright © 2012 Erlend Paasche and Katrine Fangen. All rights reserved. Mapping Heat Health Risks in Urban Areas Mon, 24 Sep 2012 15:53:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/518687/ Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial variation in heat-related health outcomes in urban Melbourne. The index was weighted using measured health outcomes during heatwave periods. The index was then mapped to produce a spatial representation of risk. The key risk factors were identified as areas with aged care facilities, higher proportions of older people living alone, living in suburban rather than inner city areas, and areas with larger proportions of people who spoke a language other than English at home. The maps of spatial vulnerability provide information to target heat-related health risks by aiding policy advisors, urban planners, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services to develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale. Margaret Loughnan, Neville Nicholls, and Nigel J. Tapper Copyright © 2012 Margaret Loughnan et al. All rights reserved. Budgetary Expenditure on Health and Human Development in India Tue, 18 Sep 2012 08:15:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/914808/ This study aims at analyzing the differentials across rich and poor states and across rich and poorer strata and rural urban segments of 19 major Indian states. The study indicates that besides individual health financing policies of the respective state governments, there are significant disparities even between rural and urban strata and rich and poorer sections of the society. These are indicated by high inequality coefficients and an emerging pattern of life style second generation health problems as well as levels of utilization of both preventive and curative care both in public and private sectors. Our results emphasise that there is a need to increase public expenditure on health, improve efficiency in utilization of existing public facilities, and popularize government run health insurance schemes meant primarily for the poor. These steps may help to mitigate partly the inequitable outcomes. Brijesh C. Purohit Copyright © 2012 Brijesh C. Purohit. All rights reserved. Circular Temporary Labour Migration: Reassessing Established Public Policies Sun, 16 Sep 2012 13:30:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/498158/ Circular Temporary Labour Migration (CTLM) is being promoted as an innovative and viable way of regulating the flow of labour migrants. Based on a specific empirical case study, we identify an unexpected outcome of CTLM programmes: the emergence of a new empirical migrant category, the circular labour migrant, which is as yet theoretically unnamed and lacks recognition by public institutions. We argue that, to date, there have been two historical phases of circular labour migration: one with total deregulation and another with partial regulation, involving private actors supported by public institutions. In a developed welfare state context, it would be normatively pertinent to expect a step towards a third phase, involving the institutionalization of this new trend in mobility by the formulation of a public policy. Current legal, political, social, and economic frameworks have to be reassessed in order to recognise the category of the circular labour migrant. Ricard Zapata-Barrero, Rocío Faúndez García, and Elena Sánchez-Montijano Copyright © 2012 Ricard Zapata-Barrero et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Maternal Mortality Level in Rural Northern Nigeria by the Sisterhood Method Wed, 12 Sep 2012 11:59:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/464657/ Maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems in sub Saharan Africa. This paper estimates the lifetime risk of maternal death and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in four states of Northern Nigeria. Data from a household survey conducted in 2011 were utilized by applying the “sisterhood method” for estimating maternal mortality. Female respondents (15–49 years) were interviewed thereby creating a retrospective cohort of their sisters who reached the reproductive age of 15 years. A total of 3,080 respondents reported 7,731 maternal sisters of which 593 were reported dead and 298 of those dead were maternal-related deaths. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 9% (referring to a period about 10.5 years prior to the survey) and an MMR of 1,271 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births; 95% CI was 1,152–1,445 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The study calls for improvement of the health system focusing on strategies that will accelerate reduction in MMR such as availability of skilled birth attendants, access to emergency obstetrics care, promotion of facility delivery, availability of antenatal care, and family planning. An accelerated reduction in MMR in the region will contribute towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goal of maternal mortality reduction in Nigeria. Henry V. Doctor, Sally E. Findley, and Godwin Y. Afenyadu Copyright © 2012 Henry V. Doctor et al. All rights reserved. Transnationalism of Burundian Refugees in The Netherlands: The Importance of Migration Motives Wed, 29 Aug 2012 14:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/962327/ It is equivocal whether the transnationalism of refugees differs significantly from that of labor and family migrants. On the basis of a strategic case study of Burundian refugees in The Netherlands we demonstrate that migration motives undeniably matter for transnationalism. Transnationalism is not self-evident for Burundians, as they are driven by a motive of flight. Moreover, transnationalism is not automatically oriented towards compatriots and manifests itself differently in The Netherlands than in Belgium. Therefore, we conclude that the study of refugees is an essential complement to the prevailing research on the transnationalism of settled labor and family migrant communities. Peter Mascini, Alfons Fermin, and Hilde Snick Copyright © 2012 Peter Mascini et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Child Policy and Fertility in an Overlapping Generations Small Open Economy: When the Labour Market Institutions Matter Wed, 29 Aug 2012 07:18:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/875310/ We examine how fertility reacts to the public provision of child allowances in a small open economy with overlapping generations. When the labour market is competitive, we find that a child allowance policy acts as a fertility-enhancing device. In contrast, when the labour market is unionised the child policy may be ineffective. Luciano Fanti and Luca Gori Copyright © 2012 Luciano Fanti and Luca Gori. All rights reserved. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health Mon, 27 Aug 2012 09:22:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/568785/ Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5) within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4). Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses. Jim P. Stimpson, Fernando A. Wilson, and M. Kristen Peek Copyright © 2012 Jim P. Stimpson et al. All rights reserved. Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion Access in the United States Sun, 26 Aug 2012 07:22:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/254315/ This study examines the relationship between state restrictive abortion laws and the incidence of unintended pregnancy. Using 2006 data about pregnancy intentions, the empirical results found that no Medicaid funding, mandatory counseling laws, two-visit laws, and antiabortion attitudes have no significant effect on the unintended pregnancy rate, unwanted pregnancy rate, unintended pregnancy ratio, or the unwanted pregnancy ratio. Parental involvement laws have a significantly negative effect on the unintended and unwanted pregnancy rates and ratios. This latter result suggests that parental involvement laws alter teen minors' risky sexual activity and that behavioral modification has a cumulative effect on the pregnancy avoidance behavior of adult women of childbearing age. The empirical results remain robust even after controlling for regional effects, outliers, and the two different types of parental involvement laws. Marshall H. Medoff Copyright © 2012 Marshall H. Medoff. All rights reserved. Internal Migration and Fertility in Turkey: Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis Tue, 07 Aug 2012 07:49:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/329050/ Starting from the mid-twentieth century, Turkey has experienced a remarkable fertility decline. Total period fertility declined from the level of 6 or 7 to the almost replacement level by 2003. Similarly, in the 1950s onwards internal migration gathered speed and transformed Turkey from a predominantly rural country to a mainly urban one in less than half a century. Fertility and migration were mutually reinforcing processes in Turkey. Considering this relationship, the study aims to compare fertility behaviours of migrants with those of nonmigrants at both origin and destination areas. The data source is the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A nonparametric descriptive survival analysis technique, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, was employed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of transition to first, second and subsequent births were compared by migration status. Survival curves of second and subsequent births for rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural migrant women are similar to the curves at the place of destination rather than place of origin. This result reveals that adaptation theory, rather than socialization theory, is more explanatory in the case of Turkey. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed that rural native and rural-to-rural migrant women experience all the events related with family formation earlier in their life cycle. Mehmet Ali Eryurt and İsmet KOÇ Copyright © 2012 Mehmet Ali Eryurt and İsmet KOÇ. All rights reserved. When Do People Become Adults? The Uruguayan Case Thu, 26 Jul 2012 13:04:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/425325/ This paper explores the key experiences that Uruguayans consider relevant for becoming an adult in Uruguay. In particular, we assess the linkages between adulthood and income; labor market participation and marital status, among other transitions that have been found to be associated with the attainment of adulthood. With the aim of identifying attitudinal patterns, we use the 2008 International Social Survey Program in Uruguay and estimate ordered probit models to examine the importance individuals assign to a series of hypothetical transitions. We discover that gender, age, and educational level are viewed as critical determinants in the passage to adulthood. Moreover, we find that Uruguay may have a different constellation of beliefs pertaining to adult transitions than has been found in similar studies conducted in the United States. Natalia Melgar and Máximo Rossi Copyright © 2012 Natalia Melgar and Máximo Rossi. All rights reserved. Transnational Social Workers: Making the Profession a Transnational Professional Space Wed, 18 Jul 2012 11:43:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2012/527510/ This paper draws on research conducted in New Zealand from 2009 to 2011 with overseas-qualified social workers as members of a global profession experiencing both great international demand for their skills and unparalleled flows of professional transnationalism. In line with the international social work literature, this cohort of migrant professionals offers a range of needed skill and expertise as well as unique challenges to local employers, client communities, and the social work profession as a whole. With a specific focus on mixed-methods data dealing with participants' induction experiences and engagement with professional bodies, this paper argues that migrant social workers have created in New Zealand a transnational professional space that demands a response from local social work stakeholders. Allen Bartley, Liz Beddoe, Christa Fouché, and Phil Harington Copyright © 2012 Allen Bartley et al. All rights reserved.