About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 985137, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/985137
Research Article

Investigation of Genipin Cross-Linked Microcapsule for Oral Delivery of Live Bacterial Cells and Other Biotherapeutics: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis in Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Model

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Qc, Canada H3A 2B4

Received 15 March 2010; Accepted 31 May 2010

Academic Editor: Shanfeng Wang

Copyright © 2010 Hongmei Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Prakash and J. Bhathena, “Live bacterial cells as orally delivered therapeutics,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1281–1301, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Steidler, “Genetically engineered probiotics,” Bailliere's Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 861–876, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Goldberg and I. Gomez-Orellana, “Challenges for the oral delivery of macromolecules,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 289–295, 2003. View at Scopus
  4. G. Orive, R. M. Hernández, A. Rodríguez Gascón et al., “History, challenges and perspectives of cell microencapsulation,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 87–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Bergers and D. Hanahan, “Cell factories for fighting cancer,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 20–21, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Bloch, A. C. Bachoud-Lévi, N. Déglon et al., “Neuroprotective gene therapy for Huntington's disease, using polymer-encapsulated cells engineered to secrete human ciliary neurotrophic factor: results of a phase I study,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 968–975, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. M. S. Chang, “Therapeutic applications of polymeric artificial cells,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 221–235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. L. Jones, H. Chen, W. Ouyang, T. Metz, and S. Prakash, “Microencapsulated genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (pCBH1) for bile acid deconjugation and its implication in lowering cholesterol,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2004, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Prakash and T. M. S. Chang, “Microencapsulated genetically engineered live E. coli DH5 cells administered orally to maintain normal plasma urea level in uremic rats,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 883–887, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T.-A. Read, D. R. Sorensen, R. Mahesparan et al., “Local endostatin treatment of gliomas administered by microencapsulated producer cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. J. D. Ross, L. Bastedo, S. A. Maier, M. S. Sands, and P. L. Chang, “Treatment of a lysosomal storage disease, mucopolysaccharidosis VII, with microencapsulated recombinant cells,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 2117–2127, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. D. Tagalakis, I. A. Diakonov, I. R. Graham et al., “Apolipoprotein E delivery by peritoneal implantation of encapsulated recombinant cells improves the hyperlipidaemic profile in apoE-deficient mice,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1686, no. 3, pp. 190–199, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Van Raamsdonk, C. J. D. Ross, M. A. Potter et al., “Treatment of hemophilia B in mice with nonautologous somatic gene therapeutics,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. R. Johnson, Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Mass, USA, 2006.
  15. J. Chin, B. Turner, I. Barchia, and A. Mullbacher, “Immune response to orally consumed antigens and probiotic bacteria,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 55–66, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Ishibashi and S. Yamazaki, “Probiotics and safety,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 465S–470S, 2001. View at Scopus
  17. C. P. Champagne, N. J. Gardner, and D. Roy, “Challenges in the addition of probiotic cultures to foods,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 61–84, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Salminen, A. von Wright, L. Morelli et al., “Demonstration of safety of probiotics—a review,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 93–106, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Freiberg and X. X. Zhu, “Polymer microspheres for controlled drug release,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 1–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. R. Moses, K. J. Dileep, and C. P. Sharma, “Beta cyclodextrin-insulin-encapsulated chitosan/alginate matrix: oral delivery system,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1089–1096, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Nechaeva, “Development of oral microencapsulated forms for delivering viral vaccines,” Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 385–397, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Orive, A. R. Gascón, R. M. Hernández, A. Domínguez-Gil, and J. L. Pedraz, “Techniques: new approaches to the delivery of biopharmaceuticals,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 382–387, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. R. Sinha and A. Trehan, “Biodegradable microspheres for protein delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 261–280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Bartkowiak, “Optimal conditions of transplantable binary polyelectrolyte microcapsules,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 944, pp. 120–134, 2001. View at Scopus
  25. D. W. Green, I. Leveque, D. Walsh et al., “Biomineralized polysaccharide capsules for encapsulation, organization, and delivery of human cell types and growth factors,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 917–923, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Haque, H. Chen, W. Ouyang et al., “In vitro study of alginate-chitosan microcapsules: an alternative to liver cell transplants for the treatment of liver failure,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 317–322, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Maysinger, O. Berezovskaya, and S. Fedoroff, “The hematopoietic cytokine colony stimulating factor 1 is also a growth factor in the CNS.2. Microencapsulated CSF-1 and LM-10 cells as delivery systems,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Maysinger, K. Krieglstein, J. Filipovic-Grcic, M. Sendtner, K. Unsicker, and P. Richardson, “Microencapsulated ciliary neurotrophic factor: physical properties and biological activities,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 177–188, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Chandy, D. L. Mooradian, and G. H. R. Rao, “Evaluation of modified alginate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol microcapsules for cell encapsulation,” Artificial Organs, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 894–903, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Klinkenberg, K. Q. Lystad, D. W. Levine, and N. Dyrset, “Cell release from alginate immobilized Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis in chitosan and alginate coated beads,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1118–1127, 2001. View at Scopus
  31. W. Krasaekoopt, B. Bhandari, and H. Deeth, “The influence of coating materials on some properties of alginate beads and survivability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 737–743, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Orive, A. Bartkowiak, S. Lisiecki et al., “Biocompatible oligochitosans as cationic modifiers of alginate/Ca microcapsules,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research—Part B, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 429–439, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Zanina, A. Vilesov, and T. Budtova, “Shear-induced solvent release from gel particles: application to drug-delivery systems,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 242, no. 1-2, pp. 137–146, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Djerassi, J. D. Gray, and F. A. Kincl, “Naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclics. 9. Isolation and characterization of genipin,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2174–2177, 1960. View at Scopus
  35. J.-E. Park, J.-Y. Lee, H.-G. Kim, T.-R. Hahn, and Y.-S. Paik, “Isolation and characterization of water-soluble intermediates of blue pigments transformed from geniposide of Gardenia jasminoides,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 22, pp. 6511–6514, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Chen, W. Ouyang, M. Jones et al., “Preparation and characterization of novel polymeric microcapsules for live cell encapsulation and therapy,” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 159–167, 2007. View at Scopus
  37. J. Jin, M. Song, and D. J. Hourston, “Novel chitosan-based films cross-linked by genipin with improved physical properties,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 162–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F.-L. Mi, Y.-C. Tan, H.-F. Liang, and H.-W. Sung, “In vivo biocompatibility and degradability of a novel injectable-chitosan-based implant,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 181–191, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Chen, W. Ouyang, B. Lawuyi, and S. Prakash, “Genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan microcapsules: membrane characterization and optimization of cross-linking reaction,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2091–2098, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Chen, W. Ouyang, C. Martoni, and S. Prakash, “Genipin cross-linked polymeric alginate-chitosan microcapsules for oral delivery: in-vitro analysis,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2009, Article ID 617184, 16 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. K. Molly, M. V. Woestyne, and W. Verstraete, “Development of a 5-step multi-chamber reactor as a simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 254–258, 1993. View at Scopus
  42. N. Berrada, J. F. Lemeland, G. Laroche, P. Thouvenot, and M. Piaia, “Bifidobacterium from fermented milks: survival during gastric transit,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 409–413, 1991. View at Scopus
  43. J. O. Berg, C. E. Nord, and T. Wadstrom, “Formation of glycosidases in batch and continuous culture of Bacteroides fragilis,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 269–273, 1978. View at Scopus
  44. H. Chen, W. Ouyang, M. Jones, T. Haque, B. Lawuyi, and S. Prakash, “In-vitro analysis of APA microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 539–547, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. A. Leblond, J. Tessier, and J.-P. Hallé, “Quantitative method for the evaluation of biomicrocapsule resistance to mechanical stress,” Biomaterials, vol. 17, no. 21, pp. 2097–2102, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Kovacs-Nolan and Y. Mine, “Microencapsulation for the gastric passage and controlled intestinal release of immunoglobulin Y,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 296, no. 1-2, pp. 199–209, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Narayani and K. P. Rao, “Polymer-coated gelatin capsules as oral delivery devices and their gastrointestinal tract behaviour in humans,” Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 1995. View at Scopus
  48. Y. Sato, Y. Kawashima, H. Takeuchi, H. Yamamoto, and Y. Fujibayashi, “Pharmacoscintigraphic evaluation of riboflavin-containing microballoons for a floating controlled drug delivery system in healthy humans,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. I. R. Wilding, D. Clark, H. Wray, J. Alderman, N. Muirhead, and C. R. Sikes, “In vivo disintegration profile of encapsulated and nonencapsulated sumatriptan: gamma scintigraphy in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 101–105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Lamprecht, H. Yamamoto, H. Takeuchi, and Y. Kawashima, “Design of pH-sensitive microspheres for the colonic delivery of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Reddy and S. Tammishetti, “Gastric resistant microbeads of metal ion cross-linked carboxymethyl guar gum for oral drug delivery,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 311–318, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. Delie, “Evaluation of nano- and microparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal tract,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 34, no. 2-3, pp. 221–233, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. R. Bhatia, S. F. Khattak, and S. C. Roberts, “Polyelectrolytes for cell encapsulation,” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 45–51, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. R. S. Hsu, S. H. Fu, J. S. Tsai, Y. Y. Huang, H. S. Huang, and K. S. S. Chang, “The plasminogen-plasmin fibrinolytic system accelerates degradation of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules in vitro,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1877–1880, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. H. Zimmermann, D. Zimmermann, R. Reuss et al., “Towards a medically approved technology for alginate-based microcapsules allowing long-term immunoisolated transplantation,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 491–501, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. K. Hirayama and J. Rafter, “The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention: mechanistic considerations,” Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, vol. 76, no. 1–4, pp. 391–394, 1999. View at Scopus
  57. G. L. Simon and S. L. Gorbach, “Intestinal flora in health and disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 174–193, 1984. View at Scopus