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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 290602, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/290602
Review Article

Polymeric Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Application: A Review

Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585, Japan

Received 16 May 2011; Revised 29 June 2011; Accepted 9 July 2011

Academic Editor: Shanfeng Wang

Copyright © 2011 Brahatheeswaran Dhandayuthapani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Current strategies of regenerative medicine are focused on the restoration of pathologically altered tissue architectures by transplantation of cells in combination with supportive scaffolds and biomolecules. In recent years, considerable interest has been given to biologically active scaffolds which are based on similar analogs of the extracellular matrix that have induced synthesis of tissues and organs. To restore function or regenerate tissue, a scaffold is necessary that will act as a temporary matrix for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, with subsequent ingrowth until the tissues are totally restored or regenerated. Scaffolds have been used for tissue engineering such as bone, cartilage, ligament, skin, vascular tissues, neural tissues, and skeletal muscle and as vehicle for the controlled delivery of drugs, proteins, and DNA. Various technologies come together to construct porous scaffolds to regenerate the tissues/organs and also for controlled and targeted release of bioactive agents in tissue engineering applications. In this paper, an overview of the different types of scaffolds with their material properties is discussed. The fabrication technologies for tissue engineering scaffolds, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are tabulated.