Table 3: Recent publications of GF-loaded hydrogels.

Growth factorPolymerQuantity loadedReleaseReference

rhBMP-2 and VEGFSilk40 μg/mL VEGF
60 μg/mL BMP-2
~15% VEGF after 28 days
~15% BMP-2 after 28 days
[147]

rhBMP-2PEG50 mg/mL~56% after 15 days for glycosylated rhBMP-2,
~35% after 15 days for nonglycosylated
[154]

BMP-2AlginateUp to 25 μg/mL ~85% after 14 days[46]

BMP-2Alginate40 μg/mL~98% after 7 days[25]

BMP-2Hyaluronic acid150 μg/mLNot disclosed[55]

BMP-2Hyaluronic acid150 μg/mLNot conducted (animal study)[64]

BMP-2Chitosan0.75 mg/mLNot conducted (animal study)[79]

BMP-2Chitosan or hyaluronic acid0.75 mg/mLNot conducted (animal study)[148]

BMP-2Collagen-hydroxyapatite composite PEG200 μg/mL~72% after 3 days, ~95% after 7 days[149]

BMP-2 and VEGFHyaluronic acid0.01 mg/mL VEGF
0.01 mg/mL BMP-2
~100% after 4 days for fast degrading hydrogels
~100% after 7 days for slow degrading hydrogels (VEGF releasing slightly slower than BMP-2)
[49]

BMP-2Hyaluronic acid200 μg/mL~10% after 24 hours
~25% after 35 days
[66]

VEGF-A and PDGF-BBAlginate30 μg/mL PDGF-BB
and/or
3 μg/mL VEGF-A165
~50% VEGF after 24 hours, ~80% after 30 days
~15% PDGF-BB after 24 hours, ~75% after 30 days
[155]

FGF and VEGFPEG heparin1 or 5 μg/mL~10% after 4 days[153]