- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 474803, 8 pages
Properties of Biobased Rigid Polyurethane Foams Reinforced with Fillers: Microspheres and Nanoclay
1Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, 248 AE Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, W2033 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Received 27 September 2011; Revised 15 November 2011; Accepted 29 November 2011
Academic Editor: Sadhan C. Jana
Copyright © 2012 Hongyu Fan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Ashida, Polyurethane and Related Foams: Chemistry and Technology, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2007.
- J. Huffman, “Polyurethanes grow strongly in' 04 but face feedstock pressure,” Chemical Market Reporter, vol. 266, no. 13, pp. 1–22, 2004.
- Chemical Week, “Construction to Drive PU Demand,” 168 (17): 33, 2006.
- Economic Research Service, “Soybeans and Oil Crops: Market Outlook,” USDA, 2010, http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/SoybeansOilcrops/2010_19baseline.htm.
- Economic Research Service, “Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S.,” USDA, 2010, http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/BiotechCrops/.
- A. Guo, D. Demydov, W. Zhang, and Z. S. Petrovic, “Polyols and polyurethanes from hydroformylation of soybean oil,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 49–52, 2002.
- I. Banik and M. M. Sain, “Water blown soy polyol-based polyurethane foams of different rigidities,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 357–373, 2008.
- S. S. Narine, X. Kong, L. Bouzidi, and P. Sporns, “Physical properties of polyurethanes produced from polyols from seed oils: II. Foams,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2007.
- R. Wool and X. Sun, Bio-Based Polymers and Composites, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Mass, USA, 2005.
- I. Javni, W. Zhang, and Z. S. Petrović, “Effect of different isocyanates on the properties of soy-based polyurethanes,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 88, no. 13, pp. 2912–2916, 2003.
- T. W. Pechar, G. L. Wilkes, B. Zhou, and N. Luo, “Characterization of soy-based polyurethane networks prepared with different diisocyanates and their blends with petroleum-based polyols,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 2350–2362, 2007.
- L. C. Chang, Y. Xue, and F. H. Hsieh, “Dynamic-mechanical study of water-blown rigid polyurethane foams with and without soy flour,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 2027–2035, 2001.
- Y. Lin and F. Hsieh, “Water-blown flexible polyurethane foam extended with biomass materials,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 695–703, 1997.
- I. Banik and M. M. Sain, “Water-blown soy polyol based polyurethane foams modified by cellulosic materials obtained from different sources,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 1974–1987, 2009.
- Wikipedia, 2010, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology.
- T. Widya and C. W. Macosko, “Nanoclay-modified rigid polyurethane foam,” Journal of Macromolecular Science, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 897–908, 2005.
- X. Cao, L. James Lee, T. Widya, and C. Macosko, “Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites foams: processing, structure and properties,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 775–783, 2005.
- P. Mondal and D. V. Khakhar, “Rigid polyurethane-clay nanocomposite foams: preparation and properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 2802–2809, 2007.
- K. Liang and S. Q. Shi, “Nanoclay filled soy-based polyurethane foam,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 1857–1863, 2011.
- Z. Lozada, Chemical modifications to produce soy-based polyols, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2009.
- ASTM D1622-08, “Standard Test Method for Apparent Density of Rigid Cellular Plastics,” 2008.
- ASTM D1621-10, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Cellular Plastics,” 2010.
- ASTM C518-10, “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus,” 2010.
- Y. C. Tu, H. Fan, G. J. Suppes, and F. H. Hsieh, “Physical properties of water-blown rigid polyurethane foams containing epoxidized soybean oil in different isocyanate indices,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 2577–2583, 2009.
- Y. C. Tu, G. J. Suppes, and F. H. Hsieh, “Water-blown rigid and flexible polyurethane foams containing epoxidized soybean oil triglycerides,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 537–544, 2008.
- G. Woods, The ICI Polyurethane Book, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
- M. Thirumal, D. Khastgir, N. K. Singha, B. S. Manjunath, and Y. P. Naik, “Effect of foam density on the properties of water blown rigid polyurethane foam,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 1810–1817, 2008.
- H. Lim, S. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Effects of the hydroxyl value of polyol in rigid polyurethane foams,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1729–1734, 2008.
- G. F. Smits, “Effect of cellsize reduction on polyurethane foam physical properties,” Journal of Thermal Insulation and Building Envelopes, vol. 17, pp. 309–330, 1994.
- D. Klempner and V. Sendijarevic, Handbook of Polymeric Foams and Foam Technology, Hanser Gardener Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2004.
- M. Szycher, Szycher’s Handbook of Polyurethanes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1999.
- G. Oertel and L. Abele, Polyurethane Handbook: Chemistry, Raw Materials, Processing, Application, Properties, Hanser, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
- Y. C. Tu, P. Kiatsimkul, G. Suppes, and F. H. Hsieh, “Physical properties of water-blown rigid polyurethane foams from vegetable oil-based polyols,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 453–459, 2007.
- Z. Lozada, G. J. Suppes, F. H. Hsieh, A. Lubguban, and Y. C. Tu, “Preparation of polymerized soybean oil and soy-based polyols,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 2127–2135, 2009.
- R. Herrington and K. Hock, Dow Polyurethane Flexible Foams, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich, USA, 1997.