Table 1: Results for the synthesis of SPESa.

Number (molar ratio of H2O/Si)Yield (g)GPCb Percentagec of sulfonic acid/%
/

11.01.772.0001.2
22.01.643.2001.1
33.01.514.5001.17
45.01.505.2001.218
56.01.545.8001.532
68.01.544.8001.555
710.01.504.4001.361
812.01.504.6001.179

aScale in operation: STES 2.10 g (5 mmol). EtOH 0.46 g (10 mmol). Molar ratio: HCl/Si = 0.10.
bCalculated based on standard polystyrene.
cCalculated based on the integral ratio of signals in 1H NMR spectrum.