International Journal of Rheumatology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders Wed, 10 Dec 2014 07:11:06 +0000 Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. Lars L. Andersen and Mette K. Zebis Copyright © 2014 Lars L. Andersen and Mette K. Zebis. All rights reserved. Pain Mystery Score Beliefs: A Comparison of Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis Tue, 09 Dec 2014 00:10:11 +0000 Objectives. To compare the mysteriousness scores of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory in fibromyalgia. Methods. Two cohorts of patients, one with fibromyalgia (FM) and one with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), completed the Mystery Scale component of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory to determine whether subjects in the two diagnostic groups had significantly different scores on the Mystery Scale. Results. A total of 126 subjects (64 FM, 62 RA) completed all questionnaires. The FM group had a greater percentage of female subjects, more severe pain, more severe anxiety, more severe depression, and a higher perceived injustice score. When the RA and FM group scores for the Mystery Scale were adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, HADS scores, and perceived injustice scores, the FM group still had a higher Mystery Scale score. Discussion. Fibromyalgia is associated with a higher level of perception of mysteriousness in the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory than is seen with rheumatoid arthritis. This difference appears to be independent of levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and perceived injustice. This sense of mysteriousness may reflect a lack of understanding of pain in fibromyalgia as previously reported and may be an area to be addressed in therapy. Robert Ferrari and Anthony Science Russell Copyright © 2014 Robert Ferrari and Anthony Science Russell. All rights reserved. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Expression of SLE, but Not Flare Frequency Mon, 24 Nov 2014 08:05:30 +0000 This study explores links between vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D = 50 nmol/L) and serological autoimmunity (ANA > 1 : 80) and frequency of self-reported flares (SRF) in participants with clinical autoimmunity (SLE). 25(OH)D levels of 121 females were quantified and compared. The cohort consisted of 80 ACR defined SLE patients and 41 age and sex matched controls. Association analysis of log2 (25(OH)D) levels and ANA 80 positivity was undertaken via two-sample -tests and regression models. Significant differences were found for 25(OH)D levels (mean: control 74 nmol/L (29.5 ng/ml); SLE 58 nmol/L (23.1 ng/ml), ), 25(OH)D deficiency (). Regression models indicate that, for a twofold rise in 25(OH)D level, the odds ratio (OR) for ANA-positivity drops to 36% of the baseline OR. No link was found between SRF-days and 25(OH)D levels. Our results support links between vitamin D deficiency and expression of serological autoimmunity and clinical autoimmunity (SLE). However, no demonstrable association between 25(OH)D and SRF was confirmed, suggesting independent influences of other flare-inducing factors. Results indicate that SLE patients have high risk of 25(OH)D deficiency and therefore supplementation with regular monitoring should be considered as part of patient management. Marline L. Squance, Glenn E. M. Reeves, and Huy A. Tran Copyright © 2014 Marline L. Squance et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Glossopharyngeal Insufflation in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Pilot Study Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:01:16 +0000 In Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), thoracic range of motion is often greatly limited. The objective of the study was to describe the effects of 12 weeks of Glossopharyngeal Insufflation (GI) training in patients with AS. Dynamic spirometry included vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Thoracic and lumbar range of motion was assessed by tragus-to-wall distance, modified Schober test, and tape measure. Disease activity, activity limitation, and health perception were assessed using the BAS-Indices, and tension in the thoracic region during GI was assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale. Adherence to training was recorded in an activity log, along with any remarks on the training. Ten patients were recruited and six male patients fulfilled the study protocol. Three patients were able to learn GI by exceeding their maximal vital capacity with 5% using GI. A significant increase in thoracic range of motion both on costae IV and at the level of the xiphoid process was seen. Thus, patients with AS can practice GI, it is safe if maximal exertion is avoided, and patients with some mobility in the chest can increase their lung function substantially by performing GI during 12 weeks. Nina Brodin, Peter Lindholm, Claudia Lennartsson, and Malin Nygren-Bonnier Copyright © 2014 Nina Brodin et al. All rights reserved. Are There Clinical Differences in Limited Systemic Sclerosis according to Extension of Skin Involvement? Tue, 11 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. To examine the characteristics of our patients with limited systemic sclerosis (lSSc) for differences between Barnett Type 1 (sclerodactyly only) and Type 2 or intermediate (acrosclerosis-distal but may reach up to elbows and/or knees plus face) subsets. Methods. Records of patients between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011, with SSc or those with anti-Scl-70, anticentromere, or antinucleolar antibodies were reviewed. Only cases fulfilling ACR 1980 criteria were included and classified as diffuse or limited according to LeRoy’s criteria. Limited SSc was separated into sclerodactyly and acrosclerosis (Barnett’s Types 1 and 2). Results. 234 SSc patients (216 females) fulfilled criteria. Female/male ratio was 12 : 1; 24% had dSSc and 76% lSSC (64% Type 1 and 12% Type 2). Total follow-up was 688 patient-years. Within lSSC, the Type 2 group had significantly shorter duration of Raynaud’s and more anti-Scl-70 and less anticentromere antibodies. In particular, interstitial lung disease (ILD) was significantly more prevalent in Type 2 group and similar to Type 3. Conclusions. These results appear to confirm that extension of skin involvement within limited SSc may identify two different subsets with clinical and serologic characteristics. Marina Scolnik, Luis J. Catoggio, Eliana Lancioni, Mirtha R. Sabelli, Carla M. Saucedo, Josefina Marin, and Enrique R. Soriano Copyright © 2014 Marina Scolnik et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Osteoarthritis Patients in a Prospective Longitudinal Study Tue, 04 Nov 2014 13:00:37 +0000 Objectives. Our aim was to determine the risk of diabetes among osteoarthritis (OA) cases in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods. Administrative health records of 577,601 randomly selected individuals from British Columbia, Canada, from 1991 to 2009, were analyzed. OA and diabetes cases were identified by checking physician’s visits and hospital records. From 1991 to 1996 we documented 19,143 existing OA cases and selected one non-OA individual matched by age, sex, and year of administrative records. Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate the effects after adjusting for available sociodemographic and medical factors. Results. At baseline, the mean age of OA cases was 61 years and 60.5% were women. Over 12 years of mean follow-up, the incidence rate (95% CI) of diabetes was 11.2 (10.90–11.50) per 1000 person years. Adjusted RRs (95% CI) for diabetes were 1.27 (1.15–1.41), 1.21 (1.08–1.35), 1.16 (1.04–1.28), and 0.99 (0.86–1.14) for younger women (age 20–64 years), older women (age ≥ 65 years), younger men, and older men, respectively. Conclusion. Younger adults and older women with OA have increased risks of developing diabetes compared to their age-sex matched non-OA counterparts. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. M. Mushfiqur Rahman, Jolanda Cibere, Aslam H. Anis, Charlie H. Goldsmith, and Jacek A. Kopec Copyright © 2014 M. Mushfiqur Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Clinical and Autoimmune Profile of Scleroderma Patients from Western India Sun, 19 Oct 2014 06:13:57 +0000 Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is a disorder characterized by fibrosis of skin and visceral organs. Pathogenesis of scleroderma is complex and is incompletely understood as yet. Autoantibodies in SSc represent a serologic hallmark which have clinical relevance, with diagnostic and prognostic potential. Objectives. To study distribution of clinical manifestations and to identify frequency of autoantibodies among subtypes of scleroderma patients from Western India. Methodology. One hundred and ten scleroderma patients were clinically classified according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria. All these patients were in active stage of disease. Clinical manifestations were recorded at the time of presentation. Autoantibodies were tested in them by indirect immunofluorescence test and ELISA. Immunoglobulin levels were estimated by nephelometer. These parameters were further correlated with clinical presentation of the disease. Results. Scleroderma patients had M : F ratio of 1 : 10 where mean age at evaluation was years and a mean disease duration was months. Clinical subtypes showed that 45 patients (40.9%) had diffused cutaneous (dcSSc) lesions, 32 patients (29.1%) had limited cutaneous (lcSSc) lesions, and 33 patients (30%) had other autoimmune overlaps. The overall frequency of ANA in SSc patients studied was 85.5%. The frequency of anti-Scl70, anti-centromere, anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA), and anti-keratinocyte antibodies (AKA) was 62.7%, 22.7%, 30%, and 40.9%, respectively. Anti-Scl70 antibodies were significantly high (75.6% versus 46.9%) among dcSSc patients () whereas anti-centromere antibodies were significantly high (9% versus 38%) among lcSSc patients when these two subtypes were compared (). Conclusion. This study supports that there are geoepidemiological variations among scleroderma patients for their clinical presentation, autoantibody profile, and immune parameters across the country. Vandana Pradhan, Anjali Rajadhyaksha, Milind Nadkar, Pallavi Pandit, Prathamesh Surve, Maxime Lecerf, Jagadeesh Bayry, Srinivas Kaveri, and Kanjaksha Ghosh Copyright © 2014 Vandana Pradhan et al. All rights reserved. Linguistic Validation of the LupusQoL for the Assessment of Quality of Life in Iranian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Tue, 09 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Persian LupusQoL for the evaluation of quality of life in Iranian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Methods. The LupusQoL was translated to Persian language. Patients with SLE () completed the LupusQoL and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Disease activity and cumulative disease damage were assessed with standard indices. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated. Results. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97 for the total LupusQoL (above 0.8 for subscales). There were strong corrected item-total (), item-subscale (), and subscale-total correlations (), as well as intersubscale correlations (). Patients with active disease and patients with disease damage index of ≥1 had lower scores in domains of planning, emotional health, burden to others, and body image than patients with inactive disease and those with no disease damage, respectively (). The LupusQoL and the SF-36 correlated well regarding comparable domains (). Conclusion. The psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of LupusQoL questionnaire are acceptable in Iranian population. This instrument can be used to evaluate quality of life in Iranian SLE patients. Naeimehossadat Hosseini, Zahra Sayed Bonakdar, Ali Gholamrezaei, and Leila Mirbagher Copyright © 2014 Naeimehossadat Hosseini et al. All rights reserved. Urate Lowering Therapy with Febuxostat in Daily Practice—A Multicentre, Open-Label, Prospective Observational Study Wed, 03 Sep 2014 10:02:07 +0000 Introduction. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of symptomatic hyperuricemia, showed superiority over allopurinol in the reduction of serum uric acid levels in pivotal studies. Whether this holds true the FORTE (febuxostat in the oral urate lowering treatment: effectiveness and safety) study was conducted to evaluate treatment with febuxostat under daily practice conditions. Materials/Methods. The multicentre, open-label, and prospective observational study was conducted in 1,690 German medical practices from 9/2010 to 5/2011. Safety and efficacy data were assessed at baseline and week 4. Results. Data from 5,592 gout patients (72.6% male, mean age 63.7 years) were collected. Under urate lowering treatment with febuxostat mean serum uric acid levels decreased significantly from  mg/dL ( mol/L) at baseline to  mg/dL ( mol/L) at week 4. 67% which reached the mean uric acid target ( mg/dL [ mol/L]). Only 43.1% of patients received concomitant flare prophylaxis. A total of 178 adverse events (mostly gout flares) were reported in 152 patients (2.6%). Conclusion. Febuxostat lowers serum uric acid levels effectively in routine clinical practice. Overall, treatment with febuxostat in both available dosages (80 mg/120 mg) was safe and well tolerated. Anne-Kathrin Tausche, Monika Reuss-Borst, and Ute Koch Copyright © 2014 Anne-Kathrin Tausche et al. All rights reserved. Validity and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Persian Version of the Oxford Elbow Score Tue, 26 Aug 2014 06:16:57 +0000 Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population. Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh, Amir Reza Kachooei, Ehsan Vahedi, Ali Moradi, Zeinab Mashayekhi, Mohammad Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mehran Azami, and Ali Birjandinejad Copyright © 2014 Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Hyperuricemia and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Noncardiac Vascular Events in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:25:55 +0000 Objective. To evaluate whether hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A population-based inception cohort of patients diagnosed between 1980 and 2007 with adult-onset RA was assembled. A comparison cohort of age- and sex-matched subjects without RA (non-RA) was also assembled. All clinically obtained uric acid values were collected. CVD and noncardiac vascular events were recorded for each patient. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of hyperuricemia on development of CVD, mortality, and noncardiac vascular disease. Results. In patients without RA, hyperuricemia was associated with heart failure (HR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.13–3.39) and CVD (HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.99–2.55). In patients with RA, hyperuricemia was not significantly associated with CVD but was significantly associated with peripheral arterial events (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.17–5.42). Hyperuricemia appeared to be more strongly associated with mortality among RA patients (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.45–2.65) than among the non-RA subjects (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.09–2.24). Conclusion. In patients with RA, hyperuricemia was a significant predictor of peripheral arterial events and mortality but not of CVD. Daniel Kuo, Cynthia S. Crowson, Sherine E. Gabriel, and Eric L. Matteson Copyright © 2014 Daniel Kuo et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Based Diagnostic Expert Systems in Rheumatology: Where Do We Stand in 2014? Tue, 08 Jul 2014 07:18:13 +0000 Background. The early detection of rheumatic diseases and the treatment to target have become of utmost importance to control the disease and improve its prognosis. However, establishing a diagnosis in early stages is challenging as many diseases initially present with similar symptoms and signs. Expert systems are computer programs designed to support the human decision making and have been developed in almost every field of medicine. Methods. This review focuses on the developments in the field of rheumatology to give a comprehensive insight. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Results. Reports of 25 expert systems with different design and field of application were found. The performance of 19 of the identified expert systems was evaluated. The proportion of correctly diagnosed cases was between 43.1 and 99.9%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 100 and 88 to 98%, respectively. Conclusions. Promising diagnostic expert systems with moderate to excellent performance were identified. The validation process was in general underappreciated. None of the systems, however, seemed to have succeeded in daily practice. This review identifies optimal characteristics to increase the survival rate of expert systems and may serve as valuable information for future developments in the field. Hannes Alder, Beat A. Michel, Christian Marx, Giorgio Tamborrini, Thomas Langenegger, Pius Bruehlmann, Johann Steurer, and Lukas M. Wildi Copyright © 2014 Hannes Alder et al. All rights reserved. HBV Reactivation in Patients Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Agents for Rheumatic and Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 07 Jul 2014 09:09:35 +0000 Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-α. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4–8.2%, : 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6–7.2, : 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2–41.2%, : 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1–8.4%, : 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5–12.5%, : 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2–8.3%, : 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-α for rheumatic and dermatological conditions, the antiviral prophylaxis would be recommended in patients with overt chronic HBV infection. Fabrizio Cantini, Stefania Boccia, Delia Goletti, Florenzo Iannone, Emanuele Leoncini, Nikola Panic, Francesca Prignano, and Giovanni Battista Gaeta Copyright © 2014 Fabrizio Cantini et al. All rights reserved. Bone Mineral Density in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with the CFTR I1234V Mutation in a Large Kindred Family Is Associated with Pancreatic Sufficiency Mon, 30 Jun 2014 11:11:45 +0000 Objectives. To study bone mineral density (BMD) in cystic fibrosis (CF) children and adults with the CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency. Methods. Lumbar spine, total hip, and whole-body mineral density were measured by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Z score was used for those less than 21 years and T score was used for those 21 years or older. Results. Twenty-one CF patients were younger than 21 years and 5 CF patients were 21 years or older. Mean age was 17.29 ± 4.95 years, ranging from 10 to 33 years. The mean BMD Z scores for patients younger than 21 years were −0.69 ± 0.96 (lumbar spine = L1–L4), −0.48 ± 0.92 (total hip), and −0.38 ± 0.86 (total body). The mean T scores for patients 21 years or older were 0.14 ± 0.7 (L1–L4), 0.38 ± 1 (total hip), and 0.52 ± 1.03 (total body). BMD reduction less than −1 was found in 7 (26.9%) CF patients. Vitamin D deficiency in 20 CF patients (76.9%) tended to be lower in CF patients with low BMD. BMD was significantly correlated with FEV1; however, no significant association was observed with P. aeruginosa colonization. Conclusion. BMD reduction does occur in patients with mild CFTR mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency. Atqah Abdul Wahab, M. Hammoudeh, Mona Allangawi, Fawziya Al-Khalaf, and Prem Chandra Copyright © 2014 Atqah Abdul Wahab et al. All rights reserved. The Thromboembolic Risk in Giant Cell Arteritis: A Critical Review of the Literature Tue, 20 May 2014 08:58:38 +0000 Giant cell arteritis is a systemic vasculitis characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the aorta and its main vessels. Cardiovascular risk, both for arterial and venous thromboembolism, is increased in these patients, but the role of thromboprophylaxis is still debated. It should be suspected in elderly patients suffering from sudden onset severe headaches, jaw claudication, and visual disease. Early diagnosis is necessary because prognosis depends on the timeliness of treatment: this kind of arteritis can be complicated by vision loss and cerebrovascular strokes. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment of GCA. Aspirin seems to be effective in cardiovascular prevention, while the use of anticoagulant therapy is controversial. Association with other rheumatological disease, particularly with polymyalgia rheumatica is well known, while possible association with antiphospholipid syndrome is not established. Large future trials may provide information about the optimal therapy. Other approaches with new drugs, such as TNF-alpha blockades, Il-6 and IL-1 blockade agents, need to be tested in larger trials. A. Guida, A. Tufano, P. Perna, P. Moscato, M. T. De Donato, R. Finelli, D. Caputo, and M. N. D. Di Minno Copyright © 2014 A. Guida et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence of Sacroiliitis and Spondyloarthritis in Patients with Sarcoidosis Mon, 12 May 2014 12:28:41 +0000 Introduction. Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, which can involve different organs and systems. Coexistence of sarcoidosis and spondyloarthritis has been reported in numerous case reports. Purpose. To determine the prevalence of sacroiliitis and spondyloarthritis in patients previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis and to investigate any possible relation with clinical findings. Materials and Methods. Forty-two patients with sarcoidosis were enrolled in the study. Any signs and symptoms in regard to spondyloarthritis (i.e., existence of inflammatory back pain, gluteal pain, uveitis, enthesitis, dactylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis) were questioned in detail and biochemical tests were evaluated. Sacroiliac joint imaging and lateral heel imaging were performed in all patients. Results. Sacroiliitis was found in 6 of the 42 (14.3%) sarcoidosis patients and all of these patients were female. Common features of the disease in these six patients were inflammatory back pain as the major clinical complaint, stage 2 sacroiliitis as revealed by radiological staging, and the negativity of HLA B-27 test. These six patients with sacroiliitis were diagnosed with spondyloarthritis according to the criteria of ASAS and of ESSG. Conclusion. We found spondyloarthritis in patients with sarcoidosis at a higher percentage rate than in the general population (1–1.9%). Controlled trials involving large series of patients are required for the confirmation of the data. Senol Kobak, Fidan Sever, Ozlem Ince, and Mehmet Orman Copyright © 2014 Senol Kobak et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Antibodies to Modified Citrullinated Vimentin and Markers of Bone and Cartilage Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:28:42 +0000 Objective. To make individualised decisions regarding treatment is one of the most important challenges in clinical practise, and identification of sensitive and specific markers of prognosis is an important research question. The main objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between the level of autoantibodies, radiographic changes and laboratory markers of bone, and cartilage destruction. Methods. A total of 114 RA patients were examined. The serum concentration of IgM RF, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), modified citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, ng/mL) were measured. The van der Heijde-modified Sharp Score was used to quantify the radiologic changes. Results. Among the patients who were high-positive for anti-MCV, the value of total modified Sharp score (mTSS) (96.5; 66–120) was higher as well as the joint space narrowing (82; 60.5–105.5), and a higher level of MMP-3 was recorded more frequently (56%) in comparison with negative/low-positive patients (57; 31–88, 50; 29–82, 31% resp., ). The level of COMP was also higher among patients high-positive for anti-MCV (9.7; 8.1–13.1 and 6.8; 5.4–10.7, resp., ). Conclusion. A high positive level of anti-MCV as contrasted with anti-CCP and IgM RF is associated with more pronounced destructive changes in the joints. A. S. Avdeeva, E. N. Aleksandrova, A. A. Novikov, A. V. Smirnov, M. V. Cherkasova, and E. L. Nasonov Copyright © 2014 A. S. Avdeeva et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Mechanical Hyperalgesia Assessed by Manual Tender Point Examination and Disease Severity in Patients with Chronic Widespread Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:10:47 +0000 The clinical utility of tender point (TP) examination in patients reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) is the subject of contemporary debate. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia assessed by manual TP examination and clinical disease severity. 271 women with CWP were recruited from a clinical setting. Data collection included patient-reported symptoms, health-related quality of life variables, and observation-based measures of functional ability, muscle strength, 6-minute walk, and pressure pain thresholds measured by cuff algometry. TP examination was conducted according to ACR-guidelines. Relationships between disease variables and TP count (TPC) were analyzed with logistic regression in a continuum model, allowing the TPC to depend on the included disease variables and two regression models carried out for a TPC threshold level, varying between 1 and 17. The threshold analyses indicated a TPC threshold at 8, above which a large number of disease variables became consistently significant explanatory factors, whereas none of the disease variables reached a significance level in the continuum model. These results support the premise that the presence of mechanical hyperalgesia influences symptomatology in CWP and that the severity of clinical expression is related to a threshold of TPs, rather than being part of a continuum. Kirstine Amris, Eva Ejlersen Wæhrens, Anders Jespersen, Anders Stockmarr, Robert Bennett, Henning Bliddal, and Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe Copyright © 2014 Kirstine Amris et al. All rights reserved. Carotid Intima Media Thickness as a Marker of Atherosclerosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis Mon, 07 Apr 2014 15:43:53 +0000 Aim. Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been observed in ankylosing spondylitis because of accelerated atherosclerosis. We measured carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis in this study. Methods. In this study 37 cases of AS and the same number of matched individuals were recruited. CIMT measurements were done using B-mode ultrasound. Disease activity was assessed using Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrological index (BASMI) scores and C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels. Results. Mean age of the study groups was 29.43 ± 9.00 years. Average disease duration was 65.62 ± 54.92 months. Twenty-eight (75.68%) of cases were HLA B-27 positive. A significantly increased CIMT was observed in cases as compared to control group (0.62 ± 0.12 versus 0.54 ± 0.04; ). CIMT in the cases group positively correlated with age , duration of disease , and BASMI and negatively correlated with ESR . Conclusions. Patients of AS had a higher CIMT than those of the control group. CIMT correlated with disease chronicity. Naveen Gupta, Renu Saigal, Laxmikant Goyal, Abhishek Agrawal, Rajat Bhargava, and Arun Agrawal Copyright © 2014 Naveen Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Contact Frequency, Travel Time, and Travel Costs for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Mon, 17 Feb 2014 11:56:15 +0000 Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general practitioners, privately practicing medical specialists, inpatient hospitals and accident and emergency departments. Results. Over a 3-month period, patients with RA had on average 4.4 (sd 5.7) contacts with health care providers, of which 2.8 (sd 4.0) contacts were with rheumatology outpatient clinics. Private car and public travel were the most frequent modes of travel. The average patient spent 63 minutes and 13 € on travelling per contact, corresponding to a total of 4.6 hours and 56 € during the 3-month period. There was great variation in patient travel time and costs, but no statistically significant associations were found with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion. The results show that patients with RA spend private time and costs on travelling when they seek treatment. These findings are particularly important when analyzing social costs associated with RA. Jan Sørensen, Louise Linde, and Merete Lund Hetland Copyright © 2014 Jan Sørensen et al. All rights reserved. Allopurinol, Benzbromarone, or a Combination in Treating Patients with Gout: Analysis of a Series of Outpatients Wed, 12 Feb 2014 08:53:24 +0000 Objective. To profile a sample of gouty patients treated with allopurinol, benzbromarone, or a combination of these two drugs and to describe the impact of this therapy in reducing uric acid levels. Methods. An observational, transversal study was performed. We evaluated 48 patients diagnosed with gout who were seen at the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2009 and November 2010. Clinical data, creatinine serum levels, and basal and posttreatment levels of serum urates, transaminases, and bilirubins were recorded. Uric acid levels were measured in a 24-hour urine sample. Patients were divided into three groups: patients given only allopurinol (A), only benzbromarone (B), and both in combined therapy (A + B). Results. The average age of these patients was 56.6 ± 11.4 years, varying from 35 to 81 years. The entire patient group experienced a significant drop in serum urate levels, from 8.5 ± 1.8 mg/dL (0.472 ± 0.1 mmol/L) to 6.7 ± 2.1 mg/dL (0.372 ± 0.116 mmol/L) (), regardless of the prescribed medication. The number of patients taking both drugs whose serum uric acid values fell within normal range (men <7 mg/dL (0.38 mmol/L) and women <6 mg/dL (0.33 mmol/L)) was 85.7% (6/7) while this value for the group taking benzbromarone alone was 75% (3/4) and for the group taking allopurinol alone this number was 51.8% (14/27). Conclusions. The therapeutic combination of benzbromarone and allopurinol significantly decreased serum urate levels in patients with gout when compared to individual use of each of these agents. This finding is especially important in treating patients who cannot control hyperuricemia with monotherapy. Benzbromarone alone or in combination with allopurinol has an important clinical role in controlling hyperuricemia in patients with gout. Valderilio Feijó Azevedo, Pedro Grachinski Buiar, Laura Helena Giovanella, Carolina Rossetti Severo, and Mauricio Carvalho Copyright © 2014 Valderilio Feijó Azevedo et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Step Test to Estimate Cardio-Respiratory Fitness Levels of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in a Clinical Setting Mon, 23 Dec 2013 09:32:57 +0000 Purpose. Exercise tests represent an important clinical tool to evaluate cardio-respiratory fitness and to predict future adverse cardiovascular events. However, use of such tests in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is relatively uncommon despite well-established evidence that low exercise capacity and high CVD mortality are features of this disease. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of a sub-maximal step test for use in RA patients. Methods. Thirty patients (24 females) (mean ± SD age years) performed a sub-maximal step test on two occasions to estimate the criterion measure of cardio-respiratory fitness (). A further maximal cycling test provided a direct fitness measurement (). Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were used to determine the validity and reliability of the sub-maximal test. Results. Estimated correlated well with directly measured (, LoA ±5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1). Test-retest reproducibility for estimated was excellent (, LoA ±2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1). Conclusion. The sub-maximal step test studied here represents a valid and reproducible method to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness in RA patients. This test may be useful for the assessment and management of CVD risk in a clinical setting. Jennifer K. Cooney, Jonathan P. Moore, Yasmeen A. Ahmad, Jeremy G. Jones, Andrew B. Lemmey, Francesco Casanova, Peter J. Maddison, and Jeanette M. Thom Copyright © 2013 Jennifer K. Cooney et al. All rights reserved. Controlled Cohort Study of Serum Gonadal and Adrenocortical Steroid Levels in Males Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis (pre-RA): A Comparison to pre-RA Females and Sex Differences among the Study Groups Sun, 24 Nov 2013 16:19:45 +0000 Serum testosterone levels are generally reported to be lower in male rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but it is not determined if a deficiency may occur before clinical onset of disease (pre-RA). Lower testosterone levels were recently reported in males many years before RA onset but were predictive only of rheumatoid factor (RF)—negative disease. A preceding prospective study did not reveal androgenic-anabolic hormone association with risk of RA in men or women. This cohort study of males analyzed baseline serum levels of gonadal and adrenocortical steroids, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in 18 pre-RA versus 72 matched non-RA control (CN) subjects. Findings in males were compared to those in female pre-RA and CN subjects in the same cohort, and sex differences were analyzed. Steroidal and hormonal levels, including total testosterone, were similar between male study groups. In females, mean (±SE) serum androstenedione (nmol/L) was slightly () lower in 36 pre-RA (6.7 ± 0.36) than 144 CN (7.6 ± 0.22). With the exception of 3 partial correlations of hormonal variables observed to differ between pre-RA versus CN subjects, the patterns were similar overall. However, partial correlations of hormonal variables differed frequently by sex, both within and between study groups. Alfonse T. Masi, Azeem A. Rehman, Robert T. Chatterton, Huaping Wang, Ned J. Goertzen, Kevin B. Elmore, and Jean C. Aldag Copyright © 2013 Alfonse T. Masi et al. All rights reserved. Rheumatoid Factor Positivity Is Associated with Increased Joint Destruction and Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and Cathepsin K Gene Expression in the Peripheral Blood in Rheumatoid Arthritic Patients Treated with Methotrexate Thu, 14 Nov 2013 14:34:19 +0000 We evaluated changes in gene expression of mTOR, p21, caspase-3, ULK1, TNFα, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and cathepsin K in the whole blood of rheumatoid arthritic (RA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) in relation to their rheumatoid factor status, clinical, immunological, and radiological parameters, and therapeutic response after a 24-month follow-up. The study group consisted of 35 control subjects and 33 RA patients without previous history of MTX treatment. Gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR. Decreased disease activity in patients at the end of the study was associated with significant downregulation of TNFα expression. Downregulation of mTOR was observed in seronegative patients, while no significant changes in the expression of p21, ULK1, or caspase-3 were noted in any RA patients at the end of the study. The increase in erosion numbers observed in the seropositive patients at the end of the follow-up was accompanied by upregulation of MMP-9 and cathepsin K, while seronegative patients demonstrated an absence of significant changes in MMP-9 and cathepsin K expression and no increase in the erosion score. Our results suggest that increased expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K genes in the peripheral blood might indicate higher bone tissue destruction activity in RA patients treated with methotrexate. The clinical study registration number is 0120.0810610. Elena V. Tchetina, Natalia V. Demidova, Dmitry E. Karateev, and Eugeny L. Nasonov Copyright © 2013 Elena V. Tchetina et al. All rights reserved. The Assessment of Disease Activity in Rheumatic Diseases Thu, 07 Nov 2013 09:49:37 +0000 Thurayya Arayssi, Zahi Touma, Mandana Nikpour, and Lilian Ghandour Copyright © 2013 Thurayya Arayssi et al. All rights reserved. The Utility of Outcome Measures in Total Knee Replacement Surgery Thu, 31 Oct 2013 15:10:22 +0000 Total knee replacement (TKR) is the mainstay of treatment for people with end-stage knee OA among suitably “fit” candidates. As a high cost, high volume procedure with a worldwide demand that continues to grow it has become increasingly popular to measure response to surgery. While the majority who undergo TKR report improvements in pain and function following surgery, a significant proportion of patients report dissatisfaction with surgery as a result of ongoing pain or poor function. Poor outcomes of TKR require care that imposes on already overburdened health systems. Accurate and meaningful capture and interpretation of outcome data are imperative for appropriate patient selection, informing those at risk, and for developing strategies to mitigate the risk of poor results and dissatisfaction. The ways in which TKR outcomes are captured and analysed, the level of follow-up, the types of outcome measures used, and the timing of their application vary considerably within the literature. With this in mind, we reviewed four of the most commonly used joint specific outcome measures in TKR. We report on the utility, strengths, and limitations of the Oxford knee score (OKS), knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), and knee society clinical rating system (KSS). Michelle M. Dowsey and Peter F. M. Choong Copyright © 2013 Michelle M. Dowsey and Peter F. M. Choong. All rights reserved. Long-Term Drug Survival of TNF Inhibitor Therapy in RA Patients: A Systematic Review of European National Drug Registers Wed, 30 Oct 2013 10:26:27 +0000 Objective. The present systematic review of RA registry data was undertaken to analyse the time on treatment of licensed TNF inhibitors in patients with RA in Europe. Methods. English language European registry studies comparing TNF inhibitors were searched using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and WHO: ICTRP up to 16 April 2012 and proceedings of three selected conferences held between 2010 and 2012. Pooled analysis was performed to determine drug survival rates for each TNF inhibitor. Results. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 studies assessed biologic-naive patients and five studies included a mixed population of biologic-naive and biologic pretreated patients. The overall effectiveness of TNF inhibitors diminished with time, leading to decreased drug survival rates. Pooled drug survival rates after 60 months follow-up were 37% (infliximab), 48% (adalimumab), and 52% (etanercept). Further, in an observational study, when TNF inhibitors were used in combination with methotrexate, a longer drug survival was observed compared to TNF inhibitors alone. Conclusion. The findings of this systematic review indicated numerically lower drug discontinuation rates with etanercept than adalimumab, whereas infliximab had the highest rate. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of treatment discontinuation with TNF inhibitors. Anamika Arora, Anadi Mahajan, Dean Spurden, Helen Boyd, and Duncan Porter Copyright © 2013 Anamika Arora et al. All rights reserved. Capability and Limitations of Recent Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis Wed, 30 Oct 2013 08:28:50 +0000 Because a diagnostic serological marker is unavailable, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is diagnosed based on unique features. The diagnostic capabilities and potential limitations of four sets of diagnostic criteria for AIP (Japanese diagnostic criteria 2006 and 2011, Asian diagnostic criteria, and international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC)) were compared among 85 patients who were diagnosed AIP according to at least one of the four sets. AIP was diagnosed in 87%, 95%, 95%, and 95% of the patients according to the Japanese 2006, Asian, ICDC, and Japanese 2011 criteria, respectively. The ICDC can diagnose types 1 and 2 AIP independently and show high sensitivity for diagnosis of AIP. However, as the ICDC are rather complex, diagnostic criteria for AIP should perhaps be revised and tailored to each country based on the ICDC. Taku Tabata, Terumi Kamisawa, Sawako Kuruma, Kazuro Chiba, Susumu Iwasaki, Go Kuwata, Takashi Fujiwara, Hideto Egashira, Satomi Koizumi, Yuka Endo, Koichi Koizumi, Junko Fujiwara, Takeo Arakawa, and Kumiko Momma Copyright © 2013 Taku Tabata et al. All rights reserved. Monogenic Autoinflammatory Syndromes: State of the Art on Genetic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Issues Thu, 24 Oct 2013 17:19:51 +0000 Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes (MAISs) are caused by innate immune system dysregulation leading to aberrant inflammasome activation and episodes of fever and involvement of skin, serous membranes, eyes, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system, predominantly with a childhood onset. To date, there are twelve known MAISs: familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, familial cold urticaria syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome, CINCA syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, NLRP12-associated autoinflammatory disorder, Blau syndrome, early-onset sarcoidosis, PAPA syndrome, Majeed syndrome, and deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Each of these conditions may manifest itself with more or less severe inflammatory symptoms of variable duration and frequency, associated with findings of increased inflammatory parameters in laboratory investigation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main genetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of MAISs and their most recent classification with the ultimate goal of increasing awareness of autoinflammation among various internal medicine specialists. Francesco Caso, Donato Rigante, Antonio Vitale, Orso Maria Lucherini, Luisa Costa, Mariangela Atteno, Adele Compagnone, Paolo Caso, Bruno Frediani, Mauro Galeazzi, Leonardo Punzi, and Luca Cantarini Copyright © 2013 Francesco Caso et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Questionnaire and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index in a Black Barbadian Population Thu, 24 Oct 2013 12:40:20 +0000 In Barbados, use of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) is limited by the unavailability of serologic markers. The SLE Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) excludes laboratory measurements and is therefore more accessible. Here, we investigate the agreement between the SLAQ, the SLEDAI, and the physician global assessment (PGA). A pilot of 32 participants completed the SLAQ and SLEDAI. The tools were compared (1) in their original format, (2) limited to common indices, and (3) limited to the same patient recall period. We compared the proportions of persons reporting disease activity and the concordance between calculated activity scores for SLAQ versus SLEDAI and for SLAQ versus PGA. Seventy-eight percent versus 59% of participants reported disease activity with the original SLEDAI versus SLAQ, respectively. The relationship was reversed to 22% versus 59% when the matched item tools were compared. Concordance was 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.81) between the original scores, 0.70 (0.57–0.83) when restricted by matched items, and 0.72 (0.59–0.84) when further restricted by recall period. Concordance between the SLAQ and PGA was 0.56 (0.32–0.80). Reversal of the disease activity percentage in the matched items comparison highlights the inadequacy of tools that exclude laboratory measurements and suggests that the subjective nature of SLAQ may contribute to over-reporting. Further work is needed to produce a robust disease activity tool apt for resource-constrained environments. Kim R. Quimby, Cindy Flower, Ian R. Hambleton, R. Clive Landis, and Anselm J. M. Hennis Copyright © 2013 Kim R. Quimby et al. All rights reserved.