Table 4: Absolute area and time overhead of different methods.

AcronymTechniqueArea overheadReal-time overhead

ACIAutomatic compiler instrumentation0793 cycles per function call
TNDedicated tracing node324 LUTs + 1200 FFs1532 cycles per function call
TITransparent instrumentation with clock gating2459 LUTs + 1815 FFs3216 cycles per function call
CICustom instruction and dedicated networks13944 LUTs + 33614 FFs4 cycles per function call