International Journal of Rotating Machinery The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A New Approach to Designing the S-Shaped Annular Duct for Industrial Centrifugal Compressor Thu, 16 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The authors propose an analytical method for designing the inlet annular duct for an industrial centrifugal compressor using high-order Bezier curves. Using the design of experiments (DOE) theory, the three-level full factorial design was developed for determination of influence of the dimensionless geometric parameters on the output criteria. Numerical research was carried out for determination of pressure loss coefficients and velocity swirl angles using the software system ANSYS CFX. Optimal values of the slope for a wide range of geometric parameters, allowing minimizing losses in the duct, have been found. The study has used modern computational fluid dynamics techniques to develop a generalized technique for future development of efficient variable inlet guide vane systems. Recommendations for design of the s-shaped annular duct for industrial centrifugal compressor have been given. Ivan Yurko and German Bondarenko Copyright © 2014 Ivan Yurko and German Bondarenko. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation: Effect of Stator Vanes on Turbocharger Turbine Performance Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:43:21 +0000 With reduced turbo lag and better transient response, the introduction of VTG stator guide vanes improved turbocharger performance at all the engine operating conditions. The VTG system accelerates and maneuvers exhaust gas flow to the turbine. Favorable flow conditions at turbine inlet created by vane shape improve turbine performance. At lower engine speed, it is observed that the pressure drop across vane system influences overall efficiency. Whereas at higher speed, the pressure drop and guide vane exit flow angle are found to determine the turbine efficiency. Successful practical operation of VTG system also depends on its ability to smoothly open and close the vanes at different gas loads. Stator vane shape greatly influences the smooth operability/controllability of vane system. In the present work, 3 symmetric vanes with different ratios and 2 asymmetric vanes are analyzed. The effect of geometric changes is studied from overall turbine performance as well as VTG system performance perspective. It is observed that symmetric vanes cause higher pressure drop at lower speeds leading to lower efficiency irrespective of the vane width. It is also observed that the pressure drop characteristics and vane exit flow angle are better with the asymmetric vanes, whereas the controllability of symmetric vanes is found to be superior. Analysis methodology is presented for achieving the best compromise between performance and controllability by the modification of vane geometric parameters through CFD simulations. Ganesh Yadagiri Rapolu, Siddharth Swaminathan Balachandar, and Keerthi Vallarasu Kamaraj Copyright © 2014 Ganesh Yadagiri Rapolu et al. All rights reserved. Surrogate Assisted Design Optimization of an Air Turbine Tue, 14 Oct 2014 09:15:14 +0000 Surrogates are cheaper to evaluate and assist in designing systems with lesser time. On the other hand, the surrogates are problem dependent and they need evaluation for each problem to find a suitable surrogate. The Kriging variants such as ordinary, universal, and blind along with commonly used response surface approximation (RSA) model were used in the present problem, to optimize the performance of an air impulse turbine used for ocean wave energy harvesting by CFD analysis. A three-level full factorial design was employed to find sample points in the design space for two design variables. A Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver was used to evaluate the objective function responses, and these responses along with the design variables were used to construct the Kriging variants and RSA functions. A hybrid genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal point in the design space. It was found that the best optimal design was produced by the universal Kriging while the blind Kriging produced the worst. The present approach is suggested for renewable energy application. Rameez Badhurshah and Abdus Samad Copyright © 2014 Rameez Badhurshah and Abdus Samad. All rights reserved. Influence of Upstream and Downstream Compressor Stators on Rotor Exit Flow Field Wed, 08 Oct 2014 12:08:03 +0000 Measurements acquired at the rotor exit plane illuminate the interaction of the rotor with the upstream vane row and the downstream vane row. The relative phase of the upstream and downstream vane rows is adjusted using vane clocking so that the effect of the upstream propagating potential field from the downstream stator can be distinguished from the effects associated with the wakes shed from the upstream stator. Unsteady absolute flow angle information shows that the downstream potential field causes the absolute flow angle to increase in the vicinity of the downstream stator leading edge. The presence of Stator 1 wake is also detected at this measurement plane using unsteady total pressure data. The rotor wakes are measured at different circumferential locations across the vane passage, and the influence of Stator 1 wake on the suction side of the rotor wake is evident. Also, the influence of the downstream stator is detected on the pressure side of the rotor wake for a particular clocking configuration. Understanding the role of the surrounding vane rows on rotor wake development will lead to improved comparison between experimental data and results from computational models. Nicole L. Key Copyright © 2014 Nicole L. Key. All rights reserved. Conjugate Heat Transfer Study at Interior Surface of NGV Leading Edge with Combined Shower Head and Impingement Cooling Wed, 01 Oct 2014 14:22:13 +0000 A computational study on conjugate heat transfer is carried out to present the behavior of nondimensional temperature and heat transfer coefficient of a Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) leading edge. Reynolds number of both mainstream flow and coolant impinging jets are varied. The NGV has five rows of film cooling holes arranged in shower head manner and four rows of impingement holes arranged in staggered manner. The results are presented by considering materials of different thermal conductivity. The results show that the mainstream flow affects the temperature distribution on the interior side of the vane leading edge for high conductivity material whereas it has negligible effects for low conductivity material. The effect of changing blowing ratio on internal heat transfer coefficient and internal surface temperature is also presented. Arun Kumar Pujari, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, and N. Sitaram Copyright © 2014 Arun Kumar Pujari et al. All rights reserved. An Analytical Model for Rotation Stiffness and Deformation of an Antiloosening Nut under Locking Force Mon, 29 Sep 2014 09:03:25 +0000 Screw fasteners are undoubtedly one of the most important machine elements due to their outstanding characteristic to provide a high clamping force just with a simplified design. However, the loosen vibration is their inherent and inevitable fault. The friction locking approach is one of the basic locking fastener categories by enhancing the bearing load on the contact surface of thread by applying a locking force on an antiloosening nut. This locking force may cause more severe deformation in the nut. The contact stress distribution on the nut would be changed and that can cause the variation of the friction torque for the bolt joint. However, there exists no established design calculation procedure that accounts for the rotation deformation and its stiffness of the antiloosening nut under the locking force. The main objective of the work is to develop an analytical solution to the rotation deformation problem encountered in the antiloosening nut. The proposed model is supported by comparison with numerical finite element analysis of different sizes of joint elements and different applied forces. X. J. Jiang, J. Hong, G. Q. Shao, L. B. Zhu, and Y. S. Zhu Copyright © 2014 X. J. Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chamfer Angle on the Calibration Curves of Five Hole Probes Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:30:14 +0000 Five hole probes are extensively used for measurement of total and static pressures, flow angles, velocity and its components in turbomachinery, and other aerodynamic flows. Their operating range is usually limited to 30–40° depending on the type of the probe head. The chamfer angle of the probe is usually taken around 45°. Recent studies on three hole probes have shown that 30° chamfer angle is desirable for unsteady flow measurements. Hence the present investigation is undertaken to find the optimum chamfer angle of five-hole probes. A special five-hole probe of 9.6 mm head diameter and 3 mm diameter pressure take off tubes was designed and fabricated. The large size of the probe was chosen to minimize machining inaccuracies. The probe chamfer angle was varied from 30° to 60° in 5° steps. For each of the chamfer angles, the probe was calibrated in the range of −30° to +30° in 5° interval and the calibration curves are presented. In addition the sensitivities of the calibration coefficients are determined. It is concluded that five-hole probe with a chamfer angle 30° has large operating range, while five-hole probe with a chamfer angle of 50° has good sensitivity. Nekkanti Sitaram and Kancherla Srikanth Copyright © 2014 Nekkanti Sitaram and Kancherla Srikanth. All rights reserved. A Miniature Four-Hole Probe for Measurement of Three-Dimensional Flow with Large Gradients Tue, 02 Sep 2014 05:43:05 +0000 A miniature four-hole probe with a sensing area of 1.284 mm2 to minimise the measurement errors due to the large pressure and velocity gradients that occur in highly three-dimensional turbomachinery flows is designed, fabricated, calibrated, and validated. The probe has good spatial resolution in two directions, thus minimising spatial and flow gradient errors. The probe is calibrated in an open jet calibration tunnel at a velocity of 50 m/s in yaw and pitch angles range of ±40 degrees with an interval of 5 degrees. The calibration coefficients are defined, determined, and presented. Sensitivity coefficients are also calculated and presented. A lookup table method is used to determine the four unknown quantities, namely, total and static pressures and flow angles. The maximum absolute errors in yaw and pitch angles are 2.4 and 1.3 deg., respectively. The maximum absolute errors in total, static, and dynamic pressures are 3.4, 3.9, and 4.9% of the dynamic pressures, respectively. Measurements made with this probe, a conventional five-hole probe and a miniature Pitot probe across a calibration section, demonstrated that the errors due to gradient and surface proximity for this probe are considerably reduced compared to the five-hole probe. Ravirai Jangir, Nekkanti Sitaram, and Ct Gajanan Copyright © 2014 Ravirai Jangir et al. All rights reserved. The Optimal Hydraulic Design of Centrifugal Impeller Using Genetic Algorithm with BVF Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:46:27 +0000 Derived from idea of combining the advantages of two-dimensional hydraulic design theory, genetic algorithm, and boundary vorticity flux diagnosis, an optimal hydraulic design method of centrifugal pump impeller was developed. Given design parameters, the desired optimal centrifugal impeller can be obtained after several iterations by this method. Another 5 impellers with the same parameters were also designed by using single arc, double arcs, triple arcs, logarithmic spiral, and linear-variable angle spiral as blade profiles to make comparisons. Using Reynolds averaged N-S equations with a RNG k-ε two-equation turbulence model and log-law wall function to solve 3D turbulent flow field in the flow channel between blades of 6 designed impellers by CFD code FLUENT, the investigation on velocity distributions, pressure distributions, boundary vorticity flux distributions on blade surfaces, and hydraulic performance of impellers was presented and the comparisons of impellers by different design methods were demonstrated. The results showed that the hydraulic performance of impeller designed by this method is much better than the other 5 impellers under design operation condition with almost the same head, higher efficiency, and lower rotating torque, which implied less hydraulic loss and energy consumption. Xin Zhou, Yongxue Zhang, Zhongli Ji, and Hucan Hou Copyright © 2014 Xin Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Numerical and Experimental Stability Investigation of a Flexible Rotor on Two Different Tilting Pad Bearing Configurations Wed, 13 Aug 2014 05:57:04 +0000 Rotordynamic stability is crucial for high performance centrifugal compressors. In this paper, the weighted instrumental variable (WIV) based system identification method for rotating machinery stability is investigated based on a sine sweep forward excitation with an electromagnetic actuator. The traditional multiple input multiple output (MIMO) frequency response function (FRF) is transformed into a directional frequency response function (dFRF). The rational polynomial method (RPM) combined with WIV is developed to identify the rotor’s first forward mode parameters. This new approach is called the COMDYN method. Experimental work using the COMDYN method is carried out under different rotating speeds, oil inlet temperatures, and pressure conditions. Two sets of bearings with preloads 0.1 and 0.3 are investigated. A numerical rotor-bearing model is also built. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the experimental results. The investigation results indicate that the new method satisfies the desired features of rotating machine stability identification. Furthermore, the system log decrement was improved somewhat with the increase of oil inlet temperature. The increase of oil supply pressure affects the rotor-bearing system stability very slightly. The results of this paper provide new and useful insights for potentially avoiding instability faults in centrifugal compressors. Weimin Wang, Qihang Li, Feng He, and Paul Allaire Copyright © 2014 Weimin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Stage Performance and Flow Fields in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaneless Diffuser Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:00:18 +0000 The effect of the width of the vaneless diffuser on the stage performance and flow fields of a centrifugal compressor is studied numerically and experimentally. The diffuser width is varied by reducing the diffuser flow area from the shroud side (i.e., pinching the diffuser). Seven different diffuser widths are studied with numerical simulation. In the modeling, the diffuser width is varied within the range 1.00 to 0.50. The numerical results are compared with results obtained in previous studies. In addition, two of the diffusers are further investigated with experimental measurement. The main finding of the work is that the pinch reduces losses in the impeller associated with the tip-clearance flow. Furthermore, it is shown that a too large width reduction causes the flow to accelerate excessively, resulting in a highly nonuniform flow field and flow separation near the shroud. Ahti Jaatinen-Värri, Aki Grönman, Teemu Turunen-Saaresti, and Jari Backman Copyright © 2014 Ahti Jaatinen-Värri et al. All rights reserved. Study on an Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine with Collection Device Tue, 22 Jul 2014 06:26:57 +0000 We propose a new type of portable hydraulic turbine that uses the kinetic energy of flow in open channels. The turbine comprises a runner with an appended collection device that includes a diffuser section in an attempt to improve the output by catching and accelerating the flow. With such turbines, the performance of the collection device, and a composite body comprising the runner and collection device were studied using numerical analysis. Among four stand-alone collection devices, the inlet velocity ratio was most improved by the collection device featuring an inlet nozzle and brim. The inlet velocity ratio of the composite body was significantly lower than that of the stand-alone collection device, owing to the resistance of the runner itself, the decreased diffuser pressure recovery coefficient, and the increased backpressure coefficient. However, at the maximum output tip speed ratio, the inlet velocity ratio and the loading coefficient were approximately 31% and 22% higher, respectively, for the composite body than for the isolated runner. In particular, the input power coefficient significantly increased (by approximately 2.76 times) owing to the increase in the inlet velocity ratio. Verification tests were also conducted in a real canal to establish the actual effectiveness of the turbine. Yasuyuki Nishi, Terumi Inagaki, Kaoru Okubo, and Norio Kikuchi Copyright © 2014 Yasuyuki Nishi et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller Wed, 09 Jul 2014 14:22:04 +0000 The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP) that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch. Saman Tarbiat, Hassan Ghassemi, and Manouchehr Fadavie Copyright © 2014 Saman Tarbiat et al. All rights reserved. A New Method for Field-Balancing of High-Speed Flexible Rotors without Trial Weights Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:22:37 +0000 Flexible rotor balancing, in general, relies to a great extent on physical insight into the modal nature of the unbalance response. The objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid experimental/analytical technique for balancing high-speed flexible rotors. The developed technique adopts an approach that combines the finite element modeling, experimental modal analysis, vibration measurements, and mathematical identification. The modal imbalances are identified and then transformed to the nodal space, in order to determine a set of physical balancing masses at some selected correction planes. The developed method does not rely on trial runs. In addition, the method does not require operating the supercritical rotor in a high-speed balancing facility, while accounting for the contribution of higher significant modes. The developed scheme is applied to a multidisk, multibearing, high-speed flexible rotor, where the interaction between the rotor-bending operating deflections and the forces resulting from the residual unbalance are appreciable. Some new benchmark solutions and observations are reported. The applicability, reliability, and challenges that may be encountered in field applications are addressed. Y. A. Khulief, M. A. Mohiuddin, and M. El-Gebeily Copyright © 2014 Y. A. Khulief et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of the Effect of Radially Distorted Inflow on a Contrarotating Fan Stage Wed, 26 Mar 2014 12:40:57 +0000 The paper reports results of a detailed study of hub- and tip-strong radial inflow distortion on the performance of a low speed, high aspect ratio (3.0) contrarotating fan stage. The distortion screen (placed upstream of the first rotor) covers 1/3 of the span of the blade near the hub and the casing for hub-strong and tip-strong inflow distortions, respectively. The performance of the contrarotating fan was investigated under both the radially distorted inflows and compared with the clean inflow conditions under different speed combinations of rotor-1 and rotor-2. The hub-strong radial distortion reduces the overall performance (pressure rise and efficiency) as well as the operating range by about 2 to 4% under the different speed combinations. On the other hand, it is interesting to observe that the tip covered radial distortion not only improves the pressure rise, but also increases the overall operating range by about 6 to 8%. There was, however, a 6 to 8% decrease in efficiency in this case as compared to 12 to 15% for hub-strong radial inflow distortion. The results reveal the physics of the effects of radial inflow distortion on the overall performance of the contrarotating fan stage. Chetan Mistry and A. M. Pradeep Copyright © 2014 Chetan Mistry and A. M. Pradeep. All rights reserved. Research on the Power Recovery of Diesel Engines with Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System at Different Altitudes Wed, 26 Mar 2014 11:27:23 +0000 Recovering the boost pressure is very important in improving the dynamic performance of diesel engines at high altitudes. A regulated two-stage turbocharging system is an adequate solution for power recovery of diesel engines. In the present study, the change of boost pressure and engine power at different altitudes was investigated, and a regulated two-stage turbocharging system was constructed with an original turbocharger and a matched low pressure turbocharger. The valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery, which formed the basis of the power recovery method, are presented here. The simulation results showed that this system was effective in recovering the boost pressure at different speeds and various altitudes. The turbine bypass valve and compressor bypass valve had different modes to adapt to changes in operating conditions. The boost pressure recovery could not ensure power recovery over the entire operating range of the diesel engine, because of variation in overall turbocharger efficiency. The fuel-injection compensation method along with the valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery was able to reach the power recovery target. Hualei Li, Lei Shi, and Kangyao Deng Copyright © 2014 Hualei Li et al. All rights reserved. Design Optimization of a Transonic-Fan Rotor Using Numerical Computations of the Full Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations and Simplex Algorithm Mon, 24 Mar 2014 06:54:10 +0000 The design of a transonic-fan rotor is optimized using numerical computations of the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The CFDRC-ACE multiphysics module, which is a pressure-based solver, is used for the numerical simulation. The code is coupled with simplex optimization algorithm. The optimization process is started from a suitable design point obtained using low fidelity analytical methods that is based on experimental correlations for the pressure losses and blade deviation angle. The fan blade shape is defined by its stacking line and airfoil shape which are considered the optimization parameters. The stacking line is defined by lean, sweep, and skews, while blade airfoil shape is modified considering the thickness and camber distributions. The optimization has been performed to maximize the rotor total pressure ratio while keeping the rotor efficiency and surge margin above certain required values. The results obtained are verified with the experimental data of Rotor 67. In addition, the results of the optimized fan indicate that the optimum design is found to be leaned in the direction of rotation and has a forward sweep from the hub to mean section and backward sweep to the tip. The pressure ratio increases from 1.427 to 1.627 at the design speed and mass flow rate. M. A. Aziz, Farouk M. Owis, and M. M. Abdelrahman Copyright © 2014 M. A. Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Experimental Study on Pressure Loss Coefficients of Exhaust Manifold Junction Thu, 13 Mar 2014 11:14:51 +0000 The flow characteristic of exhaust system has an important impact on inlet boundary of the turbine. In this paper, high speed flow in a diesel exhaust manifold junction was tested and simulated. The pressure loss coefficient of the junction flow was analyzed. The steady experimental results indicated that both of static pressure loss coefficients and first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of lateral branch and public manifold. The total pressure loss coefficient always increased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 1 and 3. The total pressure loss coefficient first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 2 and 3. These pressure loss coefficients of the exhaust pipe junctions can be used in exhaust flow and turbine inlet boundary conditions analysis. In addition, simulating calculation was conducted to analyze the effect of branch angle on total pressure loss coefficient. According to the calculation results, total pressure loss coefficient was almost the same at low mass flow rate of branch manifold 1 but increased with lateral branch angle at high mass flow rate of branch manifold 1. Xiao-lu Lu, Kun Zhang, Wen-hui Wang, Shao-ming Wang, and Kang-yao Deng Copyright © 2014 Xiao-lu Lu et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of Darrieus-Savonius Water Turbine with Deflector: Effect of Deflector on the Performance Thu, 20 Feb 2014 08:10:05 +0000 The reverse force on the returning blade of a water turbine can be reduced by setting a deflector on the returning blade side of a rotor. The deflector configuration can also concentrate the flow which passes through the rotor so that the torque and the power of turbine can be considerably increased. The placing of Savonius in Darrieus rotor is carried out by setting the Savonius bucket in Darrieus rotor at the same axis. The combination of these rotors is also called a Darrieus-Savonius turbine. This rotor can improve torque of turbine. Experiments are conducted in an irrigation canal to find the performance characteristics of presence of deflector and Savonius rotor in Darrieus-Savonius turbine. Results conclude that the single deflector plate placed on returning blade side increases the torque and power coefficient. The presence of Savonius rotor increases the torque at a lower speed, but the power coefficient decreases. The torque and power coefficient characteristics depend on the aspect ratio of Savonius rotor. Kaprawi Sahim, Kadafi Ihtisan, Dyos Santoso, and Riman Sipahutar Copyright © 2014 Kaprawi Sahim et al. All rights reserved. On the Instability Threshold of Journal Bearing Supported Rotors Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:21:55 +0000 Journal bearing supported rotors present two kinds of self-excited vibrations: oil-whirl and oil-whip. The first one is commonly masked by the rotor unbalance, hence being rarely associated with instability problems. Oil-whip is a severe vibration which occurs when the oil-whirl frequency coincides with the first flexural natural frequency of the shaft. In many cases, oil-whip is the only fluid-induced instability considered during the design stage; however, experimental evidences have shown that the instability threshold may occur much sooner, demanding a better comprehension of the instability mechanism. In this context, numerical simulations were made in order to improve the identification of the instability threshold for two test rig configurations: one on which the instability occurs on the oil-whip frequency, and another which became unstable before this threshold. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to present an investigation of two different thresholds of fluid-induced instabilities and their detectability on design stage simulations based on rotordynamic analysis using linear speed dependent coefficients for the bearings. Ricardo Ugliara Mendes and Katia Lucchesi Cavalca Copyright © 2014 Ricardo Ugliara Mendes and Katia Lucchesi Cavalca. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Unsteady Flow Field in a Centrifugal Compressor from Peak Efficiency to Near Stall with Full-Annulus Simulations Thu, 16 Jan 2014 08:32:41 +0000 This study concerns a 2.5 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor stage consisting of a splittered unshrouded impeller and a vaned diffuser. The aim of this paper is to investigate the modifications of the flow structure when the operating point moves from peak efficiency to near stall. The investigations are based on the results of unsteady three-dimensional simulations, in a calculation domain comprising all the blade. A detailed analysis is given in the impeller inducer and in the vaned diffuser entry region through time-averaged and unsteady flow field. In the impeller inducer, this study demonstrates that the mass flow reduction from peak efficiency to near stall leads to intensification of the secondary flow effects. The low momentum fluid accumulated near the shroud interacts with the main flow through a shear layer zone. At near stall condition, the interface between the two flow structures becomes unstable leading to vortices development. In the diffuser entry region, by reducing the mass flow, the high incidence angle from the impeller exit induces a separation on the diffuser vane suction side. At near stall operating point, vorticity from the separation is shed into vortex cores which are periodically formed and convected downstream along the suction side. Yannick Bousquet, Xavier Carbonneau, Guillaume Dufour, Nicolas Binder, and Isabelle Trebinjac Copyright © 2014 Yannick Bousquet et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Unbalance Response in Vertical Test Rig with Tilting-Pad Bearings Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:11:35 +0000 In vertically oriented machines with journal bearing, there are no predefined static radial loads, such as dead weight for horizontal rotor. Most of the commercial software is designed to calculate rotordynamic and bearing properties based on machines with a horizontally oriented rotor; that is, the bearing properties are calculated at a static eccentricity. For tilting-pad bearings, there are no existing analytical expressions for bearing parameters and the bearing parameters are dependent on eccentricity and load angle. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method to perform numerical simulations on vertical rotors including bearing parameters. Instead of recalculating the bearing parameters in each time step polynomials are used to represent the bearing parameters for present eccentricities and load angles. Numerical results are compared with results from tests performed in a test rig. The test rig consists of two guide bearings and a midspan rotor. The guide bearings are 4-pad tilting-pad bearings. Shaft displacement and strains in the bearing bracket are measured to determine the test rig’s properties. The comparison between measurements and simulated results shows small deviations in absolute displacement and load levels, which can be expected due to difficulties in calculating exact bearing parameters. Mattias Nässelqvist, Rolf Gustavsson, and Jan-Olov Aidanpää Copyright © 2014 Mattias Nässelqvist et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Mechanism Error on Input Torque of Scroll Compressor Tue, 31 Dec 2013 15:19:21 +0000 Based on the fundamental principle of plane four-bar mechanism, the force on the equivalent parallel four-bar mechanism was analyzed for scroll compressor with mini-crank antirotation, and the formula of input torque was proposed. The change of input torque caused by the mechanism size error was analyzed and verified with an example. The calculation results show that the mechanism size error will cause large fluctuation in input torque at the drive rod and connecting rod collinear and the fluctuation extreme value increases with rotational speed. Decreasing of the crankshaft eccentricity errors is helpful for reducing the effects of dimension error on input torque but will increase the friction loss of orbiting and fixed scroll wrap. The influence of size error should be considered in design in order to select suitable machining accuracy and reduce the adverse effect caused by size error. Man Zhao, Shurong Yu, Chao Li, and Yang Yu Copyright © 2013 Man Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Optimum Design of Oil Lubricated Thrust Bearing for Hard Disk Drive with High Speed Spindle Motor Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:25:09 +0000 This paper presents the application of optimization method developed by Hashimoto to design oil lubricated thrust bearings for 2.5 inch form factor hard disk drives (HDD). The designing involves optimization of groove geometry and dimensions. Calculations are carried out to maximize the dynamic stiffness of the thrust bearing spindle motor. Static and dynamic characteristics of the modeled thrust bearing are calculated using the divergence formulation method. Results show that, by using the proposed optimization method, dynamic stiffness values can be well improved with the bearing geometries not being fixed to conventional grooves. Yuta Sunami, Mohd Danial Ibrahim, and Hiromu Hashimoto Copyright © 2013 Yuta Sunami et al. All rights reserved. A One-Dimensional Flow Analysis for the Prediction of Centrifugal Pump Performance Characteristics Sat, 07 Dec 2013 13:16:13 +0000 A one-dimensional flow procedure for analytical study of centrifugal pump performance is done applying the principle theories of turbomachines. Euler equation and energy equation are manipulated to find pump performance parameters at different discharge coefficients. Fluid slippage loss at impeller exit and volute loss are estimated. The fluid slippage is modeled by the slip factor approach using Wiesner empirical expression. The volute loss model counts friction loss associated with the volute throw flow velocity, diffusion friction loss due to circulation associated with volute flow, loss due to vanishing of radial flow at volute outlet, and loss inside pump volute throat. Models for impeller hydraulic friction power loss, disk friction power loss, internal flow leakage power loss, and inlet shock circulation power loss are considered by suitable models. Pump internal volumetric flow leakage and volumetric efficiency are related to pump geometry and flow properties. The procedure adopted in this paper is capable of obtaining performance characteristic curves of centrifugal pump in a dimensionless form. Pump head coefficient, manometric efficiency, power coefficient, and required NPSH are characterized. The predicted coefficients and obtained performance curves are consistent with experimental characteristics of centrifugal pump. Mohammed Ahmed El-Naggar Copyright © 2013 Mohammed Ahmed El-Naggar. All rights reserved. Effects of Rotation at Different Channel Orientations on the Flow Field inside a Trailing Edge Internal Cooling Channel Wed, 27 Nov 2013 14:09:10 +0000 The flow field inside a cooling channel for the trailing edge of gas turbine blades has been numerically investigated with the aim to highlight the effects of channel rotation and orientation. A commercial 3D RANS solver including a SST turbulence model has been used to compute the isothermal steady air flow inside both static and rotating passages. Simulations were performed at a Reynolds number equal to 20000, a rotation number (Ro) of 0, 0.23, and 0.46, and channel orientations of , 22.5°, and 45°, extending previous results towards new engine-like working conditions. The numerical results have been carefully validated against experimental data obtained by the same authors for conditions and Ro = 0, 0.23. Rotation effects are shown to alter significantly the flow field inside both inlet and trailing edge regions. These effects are attenuated by an increase of the channel orientation from to 45°. Matteo Pascotto, Alessandro Armellini, Luca Casarsa, Claudio Mucignat, and Pietro Giannattasio Copyright © 2013 Matteo Pascotto et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Water Flow through a Nano-Hydraulic Turbine of Waterfall-Type by Particle Method Mon, 18 Nov 2013 09:54:42 +0000 This study simulates the flow through an impulse-type small-scale hydraulic turbine utilizing a waterfall of extra-low head. The two-dimensional Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is employed for the simulation. The fluid is discretized by particles, and the flow is computed by the Lagrangian calculation for the particle motion. When the distance between the particles discretizing the waterfall of a width , , is set at , the flow can be simulated with the sufficiently high spatial resolution, and the rotor performance can also be favorably predicted. The present simulation also successfully analyzes the effect of the rotational speed of rotor on the flow and the turbine performance. Tomomi Uchiyama, Haruki Fukuhara, Shouichiro Iio, and Toshihiko Ikeda Copyright © 2013 Tomomi Uchiyama et al. All rights reserved. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Very Low Flow Coefficient Centrifugal Compressor Thu, 14 Nov 2013 08:56:24 +0000 Very low flow coefficient centrifugal compressors are often applied as the last stages of multistage compressors. Due to the lower volume flow rate, the flow channels in the impeller and diffuser are so narrow that friction loss becomes the main factor, which leads to lower efficiency than that of other stages in the same compressors. In addition, most of design methods are generally based on medium flow coefficient centrifugal compressors. Taking on researches on the low flow coefficient centrifugal compressors is significant and necessary. One-dimensional (1D) code, consisting of design and analysis parts, is developed in this study to provide basic geometric data and predict the entire performance of centrifugal compressor. Three-dimensional geometry of the impeller is built. CFD simulation is carried out as well to be compared with 1D prediction. With the continuous geometry adjustment, the final performance of the centrifugal compressor will be fixed once the performance discrepancy between CFD and one-dimensional code is acceptable. The details on the flow field within impeller will be presented through CFD. Yongsheng Wang, Feng Lin, Chaoqun Nie, and Abraham Engeda Copyright © 2013 Yongsheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Shear Flow Effect and Tip Clearance on a Low Speed Axial Flow Compressor Cascade Mon, 11 Nov 2013 14:46:20 +0000 This paper explores the effect of inlet shear flow on the tip leakage flow in an axial flow compressor cascade. A flow with a high shear rate is generated in the test section of an open circuit cascade wind tunnel by using a combination of screens with a prescribed solidity. It is observed that a stable shear flow of shear rate 1.33 is possible and has a gradual decay rate until 15 times the height of the shear flow generator downstream. The computational results obtained agree well with the available experimental data on the baseline configuration. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the tip clearance improves the blade loading near the tip through the promotion of favorable incidence by the tip leakage flow. The tip clearance shifts the centre of pressure on the blade surface towards the tip. It, however, has no effect on the distribution of end wall loss and deviation angle along the span up to 60% from the hub. In the presence of a shear inflow, the end wall effects are considerable. On the other hand, with a shear inflow, the effects of tip leakage flow are observed to be partly suppressed. The shear flow reduces the tip leakage losses substantially in terms of kinetic energy associated with it. Mahesh Varpe and A. M. Pradeep Copyright © 2013 Mahesh Varpe and A. M. Pradeep. All rights reserved. Design and Parameter Study of a Self-Compensating Hydrostatic Rotary Bearing Wed, 06 Nov 2013 15:44:37 +0000 The influence of design parameters on the static performance of a newly designed self-compensating hydrostatic rotary bearing was investigated. The bearing was designed by incorporating the main attributes of angled-surface self-compensating bearing and opposed-pad self-compensating bearing. A governing model based on flow conservation was built to theoretically study the static performance, and the methodology was validated by experiments. It is pointed out that the influence factors on the bearing static performance are the designed resistance ratio of the restricting land to the bearing land, the inner resistance ratio of the land between pockets to that between the pocket and the drain groove, the initial clearance ratio of the restricting gap to the bearing gap, and the semiconical angle. Their effects on the load carrying capacity and stiffness were investigated by simulation. Results show that the optimum designed resistance ratio is 1; the initial clearance ratio should be small, and the inner resistance ratio should be large. Xiaobo Zuo, Shengyi Li, Ziqiang Yin, and Jianmin Wang Copyright © 2013 Xiaobo Zuo et al. All rights reserved.