International Journal of Reproductive Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis Sun, 08 Nov 2015 11:16:24 +0000 This study investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to tobacco smoke (TS), smokeless tobacco (ST), and nicotine on reproductive parameters and oxidative biomarkers in prepubertal and adult male rats. Sperm motility was reduced by 77.5 and 89.0% in TS and ST exposed prepubertal rats and 71.1 and 86.4% in adult rats, respectively. Sperm count was also reduced by 64.7 and 89.9% in prepubertal rats and 64.9 and 47.0% in adult rats, respectively. Nicotine decreased sperm motility (82.2%) and count (62.6%) in prepubertal rats but caused no effect in adult rats. There were no changes in sperm morphology; testosterone was decreased, while LH and FSH were increased in exposed rats, when compared with control. Malondialdehyde levels in testes of exposed rats were increased, and GSH, SOD, and catalase were altered. Results indicate that subacute exposure of tobacco products alters sperm characteristics in a rank order of ST > TS > nicotine, which may be linked to increase in oxidative stress in the testis. Jonah Sydney Aprioku and Theresa Chioma Ugwu Copyright © 2015 Jonah Sydney Aprioku and Theresa Chioma Ugwu. All rights reserved. Women’s Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with Intended Future Utilization Sun, 08 Nov 2015 07:09:30 +0000 The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women’s satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women’s satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (<0.001) showed strong associations with willingness to return to facility. The findings suggest improving physical environment and interpersonal communication skills of service providers and reducing waiting time for improving client satisfaction and intention to return to the health facility. Yuba Raj Paudel, Suresh Mehata, Deepak Paudel, Maureen Dariang, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Pradeep Poudel, Stuart King, and Sarah Barnett Copyright © 2015 Yuba Raj Paudel et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Interpregnancy Intervals and Previous Pregnancy Outcome on Fetal Loss in Rwanda (1996–2010) Tue, 03 Nov 2015 06:37:42 +0000 In 2005, a WHO consultation meeting on pregnancy intervals recommended a minimum interval of 6 months after a pregnancy disruption and an interval of two years after a live birth before attempting another pregnancy. Since then, studies have found contradictory evidence on the effect of shorter intervals after a pregnancy disruption. A binary regression analysis on 21532 last pregnancy outcomes from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys was done to assess the combined effects of the preceding pregnancy outcome and the interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) on fetal mortality in Rwanda. Risks of pregnancy loss are higher for primigravida and for mothers who lost the previous pregnancy and conceived again within 24 months. After a live birth, interpregnancy intervals less than two years do not increase the risk of a pregnancy loss. This study also confirms higher risks of fetal death when IPIs are beyond 5 years. An IPI of longer than 12 months after a fetal death is recommended in Rwanda. Particular attention needs to be directed to postpregnancy abortion care and family planning programs geared to spacing pregnancies should also include spacing after a fetal death. Ignace Habimana-Kabano, Annelet Broekhuis, and Pieter Hooimeijer Copyright © 2015 Ignace Habimana-Kabano et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of Method Switching among Social Franchise Clients Who Discontinued the Use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Tue, 20 Oct 2015 14:18:00 +0000 Introduction. Women who do not switch to alternate methods after contraceptive discontinuation, for reasons other than the desire to get pregnant or not needing it, are at obvious risk for unplanned pregnancies or unwanted births. This paper examines the factors that influence women to switch from Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) to other methods instead of terminating contraceptive usage altogether. Methods. The data used for this study comes from a larger cross-sectional survey conducted in nine (9) randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, during January 2011. Using Stata 11.2, we analyzed data on 333 women, who reported the removal of IUCDs due to reasons other than the desire to get pregnant. Results. We found that 39.9% of the women do not switch to another method of contraception within one month after IUCD discontinuation. Use of contraception before IUCD insertion increases the odds for method switching by 2.26 times after removal. Similarly, postremoval follow-up by community health worker doubles (OR = 2.0) the chances of method switching. Compared with women who received free IUCD service (via voucher scheme), the method switching is 2.01 times higher among women who had paid for IUCD insertion. Conclusion. To increase the likelihood of method switching among IUCD discontinuers this study emphasizes the need for postremoval client counseling, follow-up by healthcare provider, improved choices to a wider range of contraceptives for poor clients, and user satisfaction. Waqas Hameed, Syed Khurram Azmat, Moazzam Ali, Wajahat Hussain, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Ishaque, Safdar Ali, Aftab Ahmed, and Marleen Temmerman Copyright © 2015 Waqas Hameed et al. All rights reserved. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction Sun, 18 Oct 2015 16:32:52 +0000 Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25 μg of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 ± 7.61 hours versus 18.40 ± 8.02 hours (). The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley’s catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour. Nasreen Noor, Mehkat Ansari, S. Manazir Ali, and Shazia Parveen Copyright © 2015 Nasreen Noor et al. All rights reserved. Normal Pregnancy Is Associated with Changes in Central Hemodynamics and Enhanced Recruitable, but Not Resting, Endothelial Function Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:36:12 +0000 Introduction. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and reactive hyperemia-related changes in carotid-to-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr%) could offer complementary information about both “recruitability” and “resting” endothelial function (EF). Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and pulse wave analysis-derived parameters (i.e., AIx@75) are the gold standard methods for noninvasive evaluation of aortic stiffness and central hemodynamics. If healthy pregnancy is associated with both changes in resting and recruitable EF, as well as in several arterial parameters, it remains unknown and/or controversial. Objectives. To simultaneously and noninvasively assess in healthy pregnant (HP) and nonpregnant (NP) women central parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF, employing new complementary approaches. Methods. HP (, 34.2 ± 3.3 weeks of gestation) and age- and cardiovascular risk factors-matched NP () were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP), AIx@75, PWVcf, common carotid stiffness, and intima-media thickness, as well as FMD, L-FMC, and ΔPWVcr %, were measured. Results. Aortic BP, stiffness, and AIx@75 were reduced in HP. ΔPWVcr% and FMD were enhanced in HP in comparison to NP. No differences were found in L-FMC between groups. Conclusion. HP is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, central BP, wave reflections, and enhanced recruitable, but not resting, EF. Juan Torrado, Yanina Zócalo, Ignacio Farro, Federico Farro, Claudio Sosa, Santiago Scasso, Justo Alonso, and Daniel Bia Copyright © 2015 Juan Torrado et al. All rights reserved. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need Assessment Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:35:27 +0000 This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals. Ghulam Mustafa, Syed Khurram Azmat, Waqas Hameed, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Ishaque, Wajahat Hussain, Aftab Ahmed, and Erik Munroe Copyright © 2015 Ghulam Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Sexual and Reproductive Health: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions among Young Unmarried Male Residents of Delhi Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:35:41 +0000 Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners. Jitendra Kumar Meena, Anjana Verma, Jugal Kishore, and Gopal Krishan Ingle Copyright © 2015 Jitendra Kumar Meena et al. All rights reserved. Selenium Attenuates HPV-18 Associated Apoptosis in Embryo-Derived Trophoblastic Cells but Not Inner Cell Mass In Vitro Tue, 04 Aug 2015 12:04:02 +0000 Objectives. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with cell cycle arrest. This study focused on antioxidant selenomethionine (SeMet) inhibition of HPV-mediated necrosis. The objectives were to determine HPV-18 effects on embryonic cells and to evaluate SeMet in blocking HPV-18 effects. Methods. Fertilized mouse embryos were cultured for 5 days to implanted trophoblasts and exposed to either control medium (group 1), HPV-18 (group 2), combined HPV-18 and 0.5 µM SeMet (group 3), or combined HPV-18 and 5.0 µM SeMet (group 4). After 48 hrs, trophoblast integrity and, apoptosis/necrosis were assessed using morphometric and dual-stain fluorescence assays, respectively. Results. HPV-18 exposed trophoblasts nuclei (253.8 ± 28.5 sq·µ) were 29% smaller than controls (355.6 ± 35.9 sq·µ). Supplementation with 0.5 and 5.0 µM SeMet prevented nuclear shrinkage after HPV-18 exposure. HPV-18 infected trophoblasts remained larger with SeMet supplementation. HPV-18 decreased cell viability by 44% but SeMet supplementation sustained cell viability. Apoptosis was lower when SeMet was present. HPV-18 decreased inner cell mass (ICM) viability by over 60%. Conclusions. HPV-18 decreased nuclear size and trophoblast viability but these effects were attenuated by the antioxidant SeMet. SeMet blocked HPV-18 associated apoptosis process in trophoblasts but not ICM cells suggesting involvement of different oxidative stress pathways. Jennifer A. Tolen, Penelope Duerksen-Hughes, Kathleen Lau, and Philip J. Chan Copyright © 2015 Jennifer A. Tolen et al. All rights reserved. Incidence and Correlates of Maternal Near Miss in Southeast Iran Sun, 15 Feb 2015 12:19:38 +0000 This prospective study aimed to estimate the incidence and associated factors of severe maternal morbidity in southeast Iran. During a 9-month period in 2013, all women referring to eight hospitals for termination of pregnancy as well as women admitted during 42 days after the termination of pregnancy were enrolled into the study. Maternal near miss conditions were defined based on Say et al.’s recommendations. Five hundred and one cases of maternal near miss and 19,908 live births occurred in the study period, yielding a maternal near miss ratio of 25.2 per 1000 live births. This rate was 7.5 and 105 per 1000 in private and tertiary care settings, respectively. The rate of maternal death in near miss cases was 0.40% with a case:fatality ratio of 250 : 1. The most prevalent causes of near miss were severe preeclampsia (27.3%), ectopic pregnancy (18.4%), and abruptio placentae (16.2%). Higher age, higher education, and being primiparous were associated with a higher risk of near miss. Considering the high rate of maternal near miss in referral hospitals, maternal near miss surveillance system should be set up in these hospitals to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity as soon as possible. Tayebeh Naderi, Shohreh Foroodnia, Samaneh Omidi, Faezeh Samadani, and Nouzar Nakhaee Copyright © 2015 Tayebeh Naderi et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Value of Middle Cerebral Artery to Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index Ratio in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Sun, 01 Feb 2015 11:23:57 +0000 Aims and Objectives. (i) To determine the predictive value of cerebrouterine (CU) ratio (middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index, MCA/UT PI) in assessing perinatal outcome among hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (ii) To compare between CU ratio and CP ratio (MCA/Umbilical artery PI) as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. A prospective observational study was done in a tertiary medical college hospital, from September 2012 to August 2013. One hundred singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertension peculiar to pregnancy were enrolled. Both CU and CP ratios were estimated. The perinatal outcomes were studied. Results. Both cerebrouterine and cerebroplacental ratios had a better negative predictive value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. However, both CU and CP ratios when applied together were able to predict adverse outcomes better than individual ratios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive values for an adverse neonatal outcome with CU ratio were 61.3%, 70.3%, 56%, and 78.9%, respectively, compared to 42%, 57.5%, 62%, and 76% as with CP ratio. Conclusion. Cerebrouterine ratio and cerebroplacental ratio were complementary to each other in predicting the adverse perinatal outcomes. Individually, both ratios were reassuring for favorable perinatal outcome with high negative predictive value. Prashanth Adiga, Indumathi Kantharaja, Shripad Hebbar, Lavanya Rai, Shyamala Guruvare, and Anjali Mundkur Copyright © 2015 Prashanth Adiga et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Prevalence of RTI/STI Symptoms and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among the Married Women in Urban and Rural Areas of Delhi Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:33:35 +0000 Background. In developing countries, women are at high risk for several reproductive health problems especially RTI/STIs. Since all RTIs/ STIs are preventable and most of them are curable, it is pertinent to study the determinants of the health seeking behaviour. Objectives. To compare the prevalence and treatment seeking behaviour about RTI/STI symptoms among the married women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) living in urban and rural area of Delhi. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done among the married women of reproductive age group residing in Pooth Khurd, a village in North West district of Delhi, and Delhi Gate, an urban locality situated in central Delhi. Results. In this study, the prevalence of RTI/STI symptoms was found to be similar in both urban (42.3%) and rural area (42%). In urban area, 73% sought treatment, while in rural area only 45.6% sought treatment. Prevalence of the symptoms was found to be higher among the study subjects who were not using any contraceptive method, had history of abortion, and were with lower educational status, in both urban and rural areas. Treatment seeking behaviour was significantly higher among the educated women, contraceptive users, and older age group women in both rural and urban area. Anjana Verma, Jitendra Kumar Meena, and Bratati Banerjee Copyright © 2015 Anjana Verma et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Metformin in Metabolic Disturbances during Pregnancy: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:17:44 +0000 Maintenance of gestation implicates complex function of multiple endocrine mechanisms, and disruptions of the global metabolic environment prompt profound consequences on fetomaternal well-being during pregnancy and postpartum. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are very frequent conditions which increase risk for pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, and preterm labor, among many others. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both PCOS and GDM, representing an important therapeutic target, with metformin being the most widely prescribed insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic drug. Although traditional views neglect use of oral antidiabetic agents during pregnancy, increasing evidence of safety during gestation has led to metformin now being recognized as a valuable tool in prevention of IR-related pregnancy complications and management of GDM. Metformin has been demonstrated to reduce rates of early pregnancy loss and onset of GDM in women with PCOS, and it appears to offer better metabolic control than insulin and other oral antidiabetic drugs during pregnancy. This review aims to summarize key aspects of current evidence concerning molecular and epidemiological knowledge on metformin use during pregnancy in the setting of PCOS and GDM. Joselyn Rojas, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2014 Joselyn Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular Fluid Cytokine Profiles Sun, 30 Nov 2014 07:09:24 +0000 Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF) cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) and modified natural cycle (MNC) IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence. N. Ellissa Baskind, Nicolas M. Orsi, and Vinay Sharma Copyright © 2014 N. Ellissa Baskind et al. All rights reserved. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy with Prior Uterine Artery Ligation at Its Origin Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We compared the duration of surgery, blood loss, and complications between patients in whom both uterine arteries were ligated at the beginning of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and patients in whom ligation was done after cornual pedicle. Using a prospective study in a gynecologic laparoscopic center, a total of 52 women who underwent TLH from June 2013 to January 2014 were assigned into two groups. In group A, uterine arteries were ligated after the cornual pedicles as done conventionally. In group B, TLH was done by ligating both uterine arteries at the beginning of the procedure. All the other pedicles were desiccated using harmonic scalpel or bipolar diathermy. Uterus with cervix was removed vaginally or by morcellation. The indication for TLH was predominantly dysfunctional uterine bleeding and myomas in both groups. In group A, the average duration of surgery was 71 minutes, when compared to 60 minutes in group B . In group A, the total blood loss was 70 mL, when compared to 43#x2009;mL in group B (P value < 0.001). There were no major complications in both groups. To conclude, prior uterine artery ligation at its origin during TLH reduces the blood loss and surgical duration as well as the complications during surgery. Vidyashree Ganesh Poojari, Vidya Vishwanath Bhat, and Ravishankar Bhat Copyright © 2014 Vidyashree Ganesh Poojari et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of IVF Outcomes between Minimal Stimulation and High-Dose Stimulation for Patients with Poor Ovarian Reserve Wed, 01 Oct 2014 11:02:46 +0000 We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders. Tal Lazer, Shir Dar, Ekaterina Shlush, Basheer S. Al Kudmani, Kevin Quach, Agata Sojecki, Karen Glass, Prati Sharma, Ari Baratz, and Clifford L. Librach Copyright © 2014 Tal Lazer et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria Thu, 25 Sep 2014 07:16:39 +0000 Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of . About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. Abdulsalam Saliu and Babatunde Akintunde Copyright © 2014 Abdulsalam Saliu and Babatunde Akintunde. All rights reserved. Correlation between Abortion and Infertility among Nonsmoking Women with a History of Passive Smoking in Childhood and Adolescence Wed, 13 Aug 2014 12:20:25 +0000 The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of exposing to the cigarette smoke in childhood and adolescence with infertility and abortion in women. This case-control study evaluated 178 women who had been attended to at the Amir-al-Momenin Hospital in Tehran in 2012-2013. Seventy-eight women with chief complaint of abortion, infertility, and missed abortion and 100 healthy women were considered as case and control groups, respectively. The tool was a questionnaire with two parts. In the first part demographic information was gathered and in the second part the information regarding the history of passive smoking in childhood and adolescence period, abortion, and infertility was gathered. The mean age in case and control groups was 26.24 ± 3.1 and 27.3 ± 4.2 years, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.74 ± 1.38 Kg/m2. Abortion rates among passive smoker and nonpassive smoker patients were statistically significant (). Based on findings of this study, the experience of being a passive smoker in childhood and adolescence in women will increase the risk of abortion and infertility in the future, which could be the reason to encourage the society to step back from smoking cigarettes. Jila Amirkhani, Soheila Yadollah-Damavandi, Seyed Mohammad-Javad Mirlohi, Seyede Mahnaz Nasiri, Yekta Parsa, and Mohammad Gharehbeglou Copyright © 2014 Jila Amirkhani et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Results of Cycles Treated with Modified Mild Protocol and Short Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation Wed, 06 Aug 2014 07:34:34 +0000 The ovarian stimulation has been applied in order to increase the number of oocytes to compensate for the poor results of in vitro fertilization, allowing the selection of one or more embryos to be transferred. Our aim is to compare the results obtained in IVF/ICSI cycles using the short protocol for controlled ovarian stimulation to the results from the modified mild protocol used in our department. A total of 240 cycles were conducted from January 2010 to December 2011. When comparing both protocols, it could be observed that there was a significant difference in the quantity of gonadotropins doses in the mild protocol and in the short protocol. No significant difference was observed regarding pregnancy rates per cycle, 22% and 26.2%, in short and mild protocols, respectively. The protocols of controlled ovarian stimulation are often associated with high risk of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, excessive emotional stress, high rates of treatment dropouts, and abdominal discomfort. With the data obtained in this study, one can conclude that there are less risks and complications for the patient when using the mild stimulation protocol. It was also observed that in this group there was a slightly higher rate. F. Coelho, L. F. Aguiar, G. S. P. Cunha, N. Cardinot, and E. Lucena Copyright © 2014 F. Coelho et al. All rights reserved. The Desire for Multiple Pregnancy among Patients with Infertility and Their Partners Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:37:05 +0000 Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients. Ida Lilywaty Md Latar and Nuguelis Razali Copyright © 2014 Ida Lilywaty Md Latar and Nuguelis Razali. All rights reserved. Randomized Comparison of Isosorbide Mononitrate and PGE2 Gel for Cervical Ripening at Term including High Risk Pregnancy Tue, 01 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Aims. Prostaglandin E2 is the most commonly used drug for cervical ripening prior to labour induction. However, there are concerns regarding uterine tachysystole and nonreassuring fetal heart (N-RFH). Isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) has been used successfully for cervical ripening. The present study was conducted to compare the two drugs for cervical ripening at term in hospital. Methods. Two hundred women with term pregnancies referred for induction of labour with Bishop score less than 6 were randomly allocated to receive either 40 mg IMN tablet vaginally () or 0.5 mg PGE2 gel intracervically (). Adverse effects, progress, and outcomes of labour were assessed. Results. PGE2 group had significantly higher postripening mean Bishop score, shorter time from start of medication to vaginal delivery (13.37 ± 10.67 hours versus 30.78 ± 17.29 hours), and shorter labour-delivery interval compared to IMN group (4.53 ± 3.97 hours versus 7.34 ± 5.51 hours). However, PGE2 group also had significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole (15%) and N-RFH (11%) compared to none in IMN group, as well as higher caesarean section rate (27% versus 17%). Conclusions. Cervical ripening with IMN was less effective than PGE2 but resulted in fewer adverse effects and was safer especially in high risk pregnancies. Kavita Agarwal, Achla Batra, Aruna Batra, and Abha Aggarwal Copyright © 2014 Kavita Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. The Chromosomal Constitution of Embryos Arising from Monopronuclear Oocytes in Programmes of Assisted Reproduction Tue, 06 May 2014 06:40:39 +0000 The assessment of oocytes showing only one pronucleus during assisted reproduction is associated with uncertainty. A compilation of data on the genetic constitution of different developmental stages shows that affected oocytes are able to develop into haploid, diploid, and mosaic embryos with more or less complex chromosomal compositions. In the majority of cases (~80%), haploidy appears to be caused by gynogenesis, whereas parthenogenesis or androgenesis is less common. Most of the diploid embryos result from a fertilization event involving asynchronous formation of the two pronuclei or pronuclear fusion at a very early stage. Uniparental diploidy may sometimes occur if one pronucleus fails to develop and the other pronucleus already contains a diploid genome or alternatively a haploid genome undergoes endoreduplication. In general, the chance of obtaining a biparental diploid embryo appears higher after conventional in vitro fertilization than after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. If a transfer of embryos obtained from monopronuclear oocytes is envisaged, it should be tried to culture them up to the blastocyst since most haploid embryos are not able to reach this stage. Comprehensive counselling of patients on potential risks is advisable before transfer and a preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be offered if available. Bernd Rosenbusch Copyright © 2014 Bernd Rosenbusch. All rights reserved. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study Mon, 07 Apr 2014 07:08:07 +0000 We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum’s delivery mat), a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh. Abdul Quaiyum, Rukhsana Gazi, Shahed Hossain, Andrea Wirtz, and Nirod Chandra Saha Copyright © 2014 Abdul Quaiyum et al. All rights reserved. Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Outcome after Assisted Reproduction Treatment Wed, 05 Mar 2014 16:59:13 +0000 The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The study analyzed pregnancy outcome of 349 women who underwent ICSI by their BMI: <25, 25–<30, and ≥30 kg/m2. The associations were generated by applying logistic regression models. A significant reduction in positive pregnancy outcome was observed among overweight and obese women (odds ratio (OR) = 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.25–0.99 for overweight women and OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.20–0.89 for obese women). These estimates show that the pregnancy rates are reduced with increasing BMI. The effect of obesity on pregnancy outcome was absent when three and more embryos were transferred. Our study contributes to the reports linking overweight and obesity with decreased positive pregnancy outcome after ICSI and suggests women’s age, infertility type, and number of embryos transferred to modify this reducing effect. Khaled Kasim and Ahmed Roshdy Copyright © 2014 Khaled Kasim and Ahmed Roshdy. All rights reserved. Theories on the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis Wed, 12 Feb 2014 13:16:34 +0000 Endometriosis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease defined by the presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue. The aetiology of endometriosis is complex and multifactorial, where several not fully confirmed theories describe its pathogenesis. This review examines existing theories on the initiation and propagation of different types of endometriotic lesions, as well as critically appraises the myriad of biologically relevant evidence that support or oppose each of the proposed theories. The current literature suggests that stem cells, dysfunctional immune response, genetic predisposition, and aberrant peritoneal environment may all be involved in the establishment and propagation of endometriotic lesions. An orchestrated scientific and clinical effort is needed to consider all factors involved in the pathogenesis of this multifaceted disease and to propose novel therapeutic targets to reach effective treatments for this distressing condition. Samer Sourial, Nicola Tempest, and Dharani K. Hapangama Copyright © 2014 Samer Sourial et al. All rights reserved. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Navigating the Pathophysiologic Labyrinth Tue, 28 Jan 2014 09:25:51 +0000 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome. Joselyn Rojas, Mervin Chávez, Luis Olivar, Milagros Rojas, Jessenia Morillo, José Mejías, María Calvo, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2014 Joselyn Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Adequacy of the Endometrial Samples Obtained by the Uterine Explora Device and Conventional Dilatation and Curettage: A Comparative Study Wed, 08 Jan 2014 11:54:31 +0000 Aims. Our aim is to compare the adequacy and diagnostic yield of samples obtained by the endometrial Explora Sampler I-MX120 with endometrial specimens obtained by conventional dilatation and curettage (D&C). Methods. A total of 1270 endometrial samples were received in the histopathology laboratories at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2007 and 2010. In the outpatient clinic, the Uterine Explora Model I was used to obtain 996 samples. The remaining 274 samples were obtained by conventional D&C. Sample adequacy and the clustering of inadequate specimens according to age groups by the two different techniques were compared and statistically analyzed. Results. Out of 1270 endometrial samples, 253 (19.9%) were inadequate. The Uterine Explora was used in 88.5% of these inadequate samples (253 samples), and the remaining 11.5% were obtained by D&C. The insufficient tissue incidence was higher with the Explora (17.6%) than with the D&C (2.2%) and the difference was statistically significant . The ages of the patients, as well as the clinical indications for the procedures, were recorded. Conclusion. This retrospective study demonstrated better specimen adequacy when D&C was used compared to the higher rate of sample insufficiency obtained with the Explora. Maria Abdulrahim Arafah, Ammar Cherkess Al-Rikabi, Rakia Aljasser, and Yaser Adi Copyright © 2014 Maria Abdulrahim Arafah et al. All rights reserved. An Audit of Indications, Complications, and Justification of Hysterectomies at a Teaching Hospital in India Thu, 02 Jan 2014 16:05:34 +0000 Objective. Aim of this audit was to analyze indications, complications, and correlation of preoperative diagnosis with final histopathology report of all hysterectomies, performed in a premier teaching hospital. Methods. Present study involved all patients who underwent hysterectomy at a premier university hospital in Southern India, in one year (from 1 January, 2012, to 31 December, 2012). Results. Most common surgical approach was abdominal (74.7%), followed by vaginal (17.8%), and laparoscopic (6.6%) hysterectomy. Most common indication for hysterectomy was symptomatic fibroid uterus (39.9%), followed by uterovaginal prolapse (16.3%). Overall complication rate was 8.5%. Around 84% had the same pathology as suspected preoperatively. Only 6 (5 with preoperative diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding and one with high grade premalignant cervical lesion) had no significant pathology in their hysterectomy specimen. Conclusion. Hysterectomy is used commonly to improve the quality of life; however at times it is a lifesaving procedure. As any surgical procedure is associated with a risk of complications, the indication should be carefully evaluated. With the emergence of many conservative approaches to deal with benign gynecological conditions, it is prudent to discuss available options with the patient before taking a direct decision of surgically removing her uterus. Deeksha Pandey, Kriti Sehgal, Aashish Saxena, Shripad Hebbar, Jayaram Nambiar, and Rajeshwari G. Bhat Copyright © 2014 Deeksha Pandey et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of Normal versus Fetal Growth Restriction in Pregnancy: The Significance of Maternal Body Mass Index, Nutritional Status, Anemia, and Ultrasonography Screening Sun, 29 Dec 2013 08:59:28 +0000 Fetal growth restriction or intrauterine growth restriction is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity in newborns. Fetal growth restriction is a complex multifactorial condition resulting from several fetal and maternal disorders. The objective of this study was twofold: first to examine the correlation between maternal parameters such as body mass index (BMI), nutritional status, anemia, and placental weight and diameter, and their effects on fetal growth and then to evaluate the effect of early screening by ultrasonography (USG) on the outcome of growth restricted pregnancies. In this study, 53 cases of fetal growth restriction were compared to 53 normal fetuses delivered in consecutive sequence. Growth restricted fetuses were delivered earlier in gestation, when compared with normal growth fetuses. Maternal anemia and malnutrition have significant association with the fetal growth restriction. Maternal anthropometry, such as low BMI, had effects on placental diameter and weight, which, in turn, adversely affected fetal weight. Thus, early USG screening along with robust screening for maternal BMI, nutritional status, and anemia can assist the obstetric team in providing early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and better outcome in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction. Laxmichaya D. Sawant and Shirin Venkat Copyright © 2013 Laxmichaya D. Sawant and Shirin Venkat. All rights reserved. The Australian Community Does Not Support Gender Selection by IVF for Social Reasons Tue, 17 Dec 2013 12:05:17 +0000 This study was carried out to determine the attitudes of the Australian community to IVF by a reliable community poll. Cross-sectional surveys, conducted by telephone of a random sample of 650 Australians were undertaken. The sample was drawn from the residential phone numbers in the Australian electronic “White Pages” and stratified by geographical area with quotas controlled by gender and age to be representative of the Australian population. The participants were asked to answer to three questions about gender selection, and their response was measured as “yes-allowed,” “no-not allowed,” or “undecided” for each of the questions. Whilst 91% of respondents supported the use of IVF to help infertile couples, only 20% supported gender selection within IVF or for family balancing. When it came to the use of IVF only for gender selection, only 17% were in favour. This survey shows that Australian community overwhelmingly opposes gender selection for social reasons. Kovacs Gab, McCrann Julian, Levine Michele, and Morgan Gary Copyright © 2013 Kovacs Gab et al. All rights reserved.