- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 894841, 10 pages
QCLAS and CRDS-Based CO Quantification as Aimed at in Breath Measurements
1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2VSL, Thijsseweg 11, 2629 JA Delft, The Netherlands
3Institut für Lasermedizin (ILM), Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
Received 7 September 2011; Revised 7 October 2011; Accepted 7 October 2011
Academic Editor: Veronica Vaida
Copyright © 2012 Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science, vol. 264, no. 5158, pp. 553–556, 1994.
- C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 8230–8262, 2009.
- M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” Journal of Breath Research, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 014001, 2007.
- J. A. Nwaboh, T. Desbois, D. Romanini, D. Schiel, and O. Werhahn, “Molecular laser spectroscopy as a tool for gas analysis applications,” International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2011, Article ID 568913, 12 pages, 2011.
- J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Applied Physics B, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1027–1038, 2005.
- P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck et al., “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Experiments in Fluids, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 961–968, 2010.
- K. Heinrich, T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser-spectroscopic analysis of 14NO and 15NO in human breath,” Applied Physics B, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 281–286, 2009.
- K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, I. Pasti et al., “Distributed feedback diode laser spectrometer at 2.7 μ for sensitive, spatially resolved H2O vapor detection,” Applied Optics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. B172–B182, 2009.
- J. A. Nwaboh, O. Werhahn, and D. Schiel, “Measurement of CO amount fractions using a pulsed quantum-cascade laser operated in the intrapulse mode,” Applied Physics B, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 947–957, 2011.
- S. Wright, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “A compact quantum-cascade laser based spectrometer for monitoring the concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide in the troposphere,” Applied Physics B, vol. 85, no. 2-3, pp. 243–249, 2006.
- S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Applied Physics B, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 343–349, 2008.
- M. Sowa, M. Mürtz, and P. Hering, “Mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for online analysis of exhaled CO,” Journal of Breath Research, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID 47101, 2010.
- EMRP, “T2.J02–Breath Analysis, Joint Research Projects funded under iMERA-plus,” 2010, http://www.euramet.org/index.php?id=imera-plus.
- O. Werhahn and J. C. Petersen, Eds., “TILSAM technical protocol V1_2010-09-29,” http://www.euramet.org/fileadmin/docs/projects/934_METCHEM_Interim_Report.pdf.
- JCGM 100, “Evaluation of measurement data—Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, GUM 1995 with minor corrections,” ISO IEC Guide 98-3, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.
- J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy based on a pulsed quantum cascade laser for sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene,” Applied Optics, vol. 49, no. 28, pp. 5302–5308, 2010.
- B. E. Brumfield, J. T. Stewart, S. L. Widicus Weaver et al., “A quantum cascade laser cw cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a supersonic expansion source,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 81, no. 6, Article ID 063102, 2010.
- L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe et al., “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 110, no. 9-10, pp. 533–572, 2009.
- E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Optics Letters, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 16–18, 2003.
- M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, “Highly sensitive detection of trace gases using the time-resolved frequency downchirp from pulsed quantum-cascade lasers,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1761–1768, 2003.
- T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 3158–3160, 2003.
- B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm,” Applied Physics B, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2008.
- J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Applied Physics B, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 337–344, 2009.
- C. Pflügl, M. Litzenberger, W. Schrenk, D. Pogany, E. Gornik, and G. Strasser, “Interferometric study of thermal dynamics in GaAs-based quantum-cascade lasers,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1664–1666, 2003.
- Instituto Portugues da qualidade (IPQ), http://www.ipq.pt/backhtmlfiles/ipq_mei.htm.
- G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, “Rapid passage induced population transfer and coherences in the 8 micron spectrum of nitrous oxide,” Molecular Physics, vol. 105, no. 5–7, pp. 741–754, 2007.
- S. Welzel, New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection, Ph.D. thesis, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität, Greifswald, Germany, 2009.
- Origin 7.5 SR6, “OriginLab cooperation,” Northampton, Mass, USA, 2006, http://www.OriginLab.com.
- Levenberg-Marquardt, “Numerical Recipes,” 2005, http://www.library.cornell.edu.
- GUM Workbench Pro, “Version 22.214.171.1248, 1996–2010 Metrodata GmbH, Im Winkel 15–1,” Weil am Rhein, Germany, http://www.metrodata.de.
- H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Applied Optics, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2043–2051, 2003.
- S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. Van Der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Applied Physics B, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 383–390, 2010.
- R. D. van Zee and J. Patrick Looney, “Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies,” in Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, vol. 40, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002.
- P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 2708–2717, 1995.
- J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Applied Optics, vol. 45, no. 36, pp. 9230–9237, 2006.
- D. Halmer, G. Von Basum, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy for ultrasensitive detection of carbonyl sulfide,” Optics Letters, vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 2314–2316, 2005.
- G. Berden and R. Engeln, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
- “BLeast software according to recommendations given in ISO6143 on generalized linear regressions in gas analysis, developed by the BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung,” Berlin, Germany, http://www.bam.de.
- VSL B.V., Dutch Metrology Institute, Delft, The Netherlands, http://www.vsl.nl/.
- A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel et al., “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Applied Optics, vol. 40, no. 30, pp. 5522–5529, 2001.
- B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence et al., “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Optics Letters, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 666–668, 2000.
- ISO/IEC 17025, “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories,” http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39883.