- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Applied Mathematics and Stochastic Analysis

Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 975601, 13 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/975601

## A Boundary Value Problem with Multivariables Integral Type Condition for Parabolic Equations

^{1}Laboratory Equations Différentielles, Departement of Mathematics, University Mentouri Constantine, Constantine 25017, Algeria^{2}Department of Mathematics, Science University of 08 Mai 45, P.O. Box 401, Guelma 24000, Algeria

Received 27 January 2009; Revised 14 May 2009; Accepted 13 October 2009

Academic Editor: Sergiu Aizicovici

Copyright © 2009 A. L. Marhoune and F. Lakhal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We study a boundary value problem with multivariables integral type condition for a class of parabolic equations. We prove the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of the solution upon the data in the functional wieghted Sobolev spaces. Results are obtained by using a functional analysis method based on two-sided a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the linear operator generated by the considered problem.

#### 1. Introduction

Certain problems of modern physics and technology can be effectively described in terms of nonlocal problems with integral conditions for partial differential equations.These nonlocal conditions arise mainly when the data on the boundary cannot be measured directly. Motivated by this, we consider in the rectangular domain the following nonclassical boundary value problem of finding a solution such that where the function and its derivative are bounded on the interval

Here, we assume that the known function satisfies the conditions given in (1.4) and (1.5), that is,

When considering the classical solution of the problem (1.1)–(1.5), along with (1.5), there should be the fulfilled conditions:

Mathematical modelling of different phenomena leads to problems with nonlocal or integral boundary conditions. Such a condition occurs in the case when one measures an averaged value of some parameter inside the domain. This amounts to the specification of the energy or mass contained in a portion of the conductor or porous medium as a function of time. This problems arise in plasma physics, heat conduction, biology and demography, as well as modelling of technological process, see, for example, [1–5]. Boundary-value problems for parabolic equations with integral boundary condition are investigated by Batten [6], Bouziani and Benouar [7], Cannon [8, 9], Cannon, Perez Esteva and van der Hoek [10], Ionkin [11], Kamynin [12], Shi and Shillor [13], Shi [4], Marhoune and Bouzit [14], Marhoune and Hameida [15], Yurchuk [16], and many references therein. The problem with one-variable (resp., two-variable) boundary integral type condition is studied in [5] and by Marhoune and Latrous [17] (resp., in Marhoune [2]).

Mention that in the cited paper [16], the author proved the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of a stronge solution in weighted Sobolev spaces to the problem

under the following conditions:

This last integral condition in the form

arises, for example, in biochemistry in which is a constant, and in this case is known as the conservation of protein [18]. Further, in [5], the author studied a similar problem with the weak integral condition

The same problem with the new integral condition

was investigated in [2]. The present paper is an extension in the same direction. By constructing a suitable multiplicator, we will try to establish existence and uniqueness of solution of problem (1.1)–(1.5). Note that the multivariables integral type condition (1.5) is considerably much weaker and better than that used in [2]. In fact, some physical problems have motivated specialists to consider nonlocal integral condition (1.5), which tells us the integral total effect of the solution over several independent portions , and of interval at certain time that give this effect over the entire or part of this interval.

We associate with (1.1)–(1.5) the operator defined from into where is the Banach space of functions satisfying (1.4) and (1.5), with the finite norm and is the Hilbert space of vector-valued functions obtained by completion of the space with respect to the norm

where

Using the energy inequalities method proposed in [16], we establish two-sided a priori estimates. Then, we prove that the operator is a linear homeomorphism between the spaces and .

#### 2. Two-Sided A Priori Estimates

Theorem 2.1. *For any function one has the a priori estimate
**
where the constant is independent of . In fact, *

*Proof. *Using (1.1) and initial condition (1.3), we obtain
Combining the inequalities in (2.2), we obtain (2.1) for .

Theorem 2.2. *For any function , one has the a priori estimate
**
with the constant
**
and is such that
*

Before proving this theorem, we need the following lemma.

Lemma 2.3 (see [19]). *For one has
*

*Proof of Theorem 2.2. *Define
We consider for the quadratic formula
with the constant satisfying (2.5), obtained by multiplying (1.1) by , by integrating over , where , with , and by taking the real part. Integrating by parts in (2.8) by report to with the use of boundary conditions (1.4) and (1.5), we obtain
On the other hand, by using the elementary inequalities we get
Again, integrating by parts the second, third, fourth, and fifth terms of the right-hand side of the inequality (2.10) by report to and taking into account the initial condition (1.3) and (2.5) gives
Using (2.11) in (2.10), we get
By using the -inequalities on the first integral in the left-hand side of (2.12) and Lemma 2.3, we obtain
Now, from (1.1), we have
Combining inequalities (2.13) and (2.14), we get
As the right-hand side of (2.15) is independent of , by replacing the left-hand side by its upper bound with respect to in the interval , we obtain the desired inequality.

#### 3. Solvability of the Problem

From estimates (2.1) and (2.3), it follows that the operator is continuous and its range is closed in Therefore, the inverse operator exists and is continuous from the closed subspace onto , which means that is an homeomorphism from onto . To obtain the uniqueness of solution, it remains to show that . The proof is based on the following lemma.

Lemma 3.1. *Let **
If for and some , one has
**
where **
then *

*Proof. *From (3.2) we have
Now, for given , we introduce the function
Integrating by parts with respect to , we obtain
which implies that
Then, from (3.4), we obtain
where
If we introduce the smoothing operators with respect to [16], and then these operators provide the solutions of the respective problems:
and also have the following properties: for any , the functions and are in such that and Morever, commutes with so and for

Putting in (3.8), where the constant satisfies , and using (3.11), we obtain

Integrating by parts each term in the right-hand side of (3.12) and taking the real parts yield
Using -inequalities, we obtain
Combining (3.13) and (3.15), we get
From (3.16), we deduce that
Then, for we obtain
We conclude that , hence , which ends the proof of the the lemma.

Theorem 3.2. *The range of coincides with .*

*Proof. *Since is a Hilbert space, we have if and only if the relation
for arbitrary and , implies that and

Putting in (3.19), we conclude from Lemma 3.1 that , where
then .

Taking in (3.19) yields
The range of the operator is everywhere dense in Hilbert space with the norm
hence,

#### Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the referee for helpful suggestions and comments.

#### References

- A. A. Samarskiĭ, “Some problems of the theory of differential equations,”
*Differentsial'nye Uravneniya*, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1221–1228, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - A. L. Marhoune, “A three-point boundary value problem with an integral two-space-variables condition for parabolic equations,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 940–947, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - R. E. Ewing and T. Lin, “A class of parameter estimation techniques for fluid flow in porous media,”
*Advances in Water Resources*, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 89–97, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - P. Shi, “Weak solution to an evolution problem with a nonlocal constraint,”
*SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis*, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 46–58, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - A. V. Kartynnik, “A three-point mixed problem with an integral condition with respect to the space variable for second-order parabolic equations,”
*Differential Equations*, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1160–1166, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - G. W. Batten Jr., “Second-order correct boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the mixed boundary problem for parabolic equations,”
*Mathematics of Computation*, vol. 17, pp. 405–413, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - A. Bouziani and N.-E. Benouar, “Mixed problem with integral conditions for a third order parabolic equation,”
*Kobe Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. R. Cannon, “The solution of the heat equation subject to the specification of energy,”
*Quarterly of Applied Mathematics*, vol. 21, pp. 155–160, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - J. R. Cannon,
*The One-Dimensional Heat Equation*, vol. 23 of*Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications*, Addison-Wesley, Mento Park, Calif, USA, 1984. View at MathSciNet - J. R. Cannon, S. Pérez Esteva, and J. van der Hoek, “A Galerkin procedure for the diffusion equation subject to the specification of mass,”
*SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis*, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 499–515, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - N. I. Ionkin, “The solution of a certain boundary value problem of the theory of heat conduction with a nonclassical boundary condition,”
*Differentsial'nye Uravneniya*, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 294–304, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - L. I. Kamynin, “A boundary-value problem in the theory of heat conduction with non-classical boundary conditions,”
*U.S.S.R. Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physicsi*, vol. 4, pp. 33–59, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet - P. Shi and M. Shillor, “Design of contact patterns in one dimentional thermoelasticity,” in
*Theoretical Aspects of Industrial Design*, SIAM, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar - A. L. Marhoune and M. Bouzit, “High order differential equations with integral boundary condition,”
*Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 341–350, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - A. L. Marhoune and A. Hameida, “Mixed problem with an integral space variable condition for a third order parabolic equation of mixed type,”
*Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 409–418, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - N. I. Yurchuk, “Mixed problem with an integral condition for some parabolic equations,”
*Differential Equations*, vol. 22, pp. 1457–1463, 1986. View at Google Scholar - A. L. Marhoune and C. Latrous, “A strong solution of a high-order mixed type partial differential equation with integral conditions,”
*Applicable Analysis*, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 625–634, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - G. Fairweather and R. D. Saylor, “The reformulation and numerical solution of certain nonclassical initial-boundary value problems,”
*SIAM Journal on Scientific and Statistical Computing*, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 127–144, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya,
*Inequalities*, Cambridge Press, Cambridge, UK, 1934.