Table 1: Epidemiological studies of HPC.

Study, year [ref]TypeLocationNo. of patientsFindings

Falk, 1988 [9]Case controlLouisiana, USA363OR 5.25 if FH

Lynch, 1990 [10]DescriptiveNebraska, USA4710-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of PC (7.8% versus 0.6%)

Ghadirian, 1991 [11]Case controlMontréal, Canada17913-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of PC (6.7% versus 0.7%)

Fernandez, 1994 [12]Case controlItaly3624-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of PC (3.9% versus 1.1%); RR 3 if FH

Dergham, 1997 [13]Case seriesDetroit, USA819% occurrence of PC if FH of PC.

Coughlin, 2000 [14]CohortUSA3751RR 1.5 (men)–1.7 (women) if FH

Hemminki, 2003 [15]CohortSweden21,000SIR 2.4 if FH (parent)

Klein, 2004 [16]RegistryBaltimore, USA5179SIR 32 if 3 FDR with PCSIR 6.4 if 2 FDR with PCSIR 4.5 if 1 FDR with PC

Permuth-Wey, 2008 [17]Meta-analysisUSA, Italy, Canada, Japan6568RR 3.4 if FH of PC

OR: odds ratio; RR: relative risk; SIR: standardized incidence ratio; FH: family history; FDR: first-degree relative.