International Journal of Surgical Oncology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Mucus Containing Cystic Lesions “Mucocele” of the Appendix: The Unresolved Issues Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:15:16 +0000 Background. Mucocele of the appendix is a rare condition, the pathological classification and management strategy of which have not been standardized yet. Aim. To report on our management of appendiceal mucocele, highlighting the pitfalls and possible means for avoiding them. Materials and Methods. Our registries were reviewed to retrieve cases of appendiceal mucocele, encountered in the period from July 2008 to May 2013. Results. We had 9 cases, three males and sex females, with a median age of 62 years. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and computerized axial tomography scan (CT) suspected the diagnosis in only one case each. Open appendectomy was done in two cases of mucinous cystadenoma with no further surgery performed, despite the positive margin in one. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done in three cases: mucinous cystadenoma in one case which needed no further surgery, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with pseudomyxoma peritonei in another, and low grade mucinous tumour in a third case, and all needed subsequent right hemicolectomy. Exploratory laparotomy was done in three cases: of these, synchronous right hemicolectomy was done in one case of mucinous cystadenoma/?mucinous tumour of uncertain malignant potential; in the other two cases, appendectomy only was done for mucinous hyperplasia with carcinoid tumour of the appendix in one case and mucinous cystadenoma/?mucinous tumour of uncertain malignant potential in another. The 9th case was discovered upon laparoscopy for cholecystectomy; when pseudomyxoma peritonei arising from an appendiceal mucocele was found, laparoscopic appendectomy with peritoneal biopsy was then performed instead. Histopathologic diagnostic uncertainty was present in two cases of mucinous cystadenoma where mucinous tumour of uncertain malignant potential was an alternative possibility. Perioperative colonoscopy was performed in only one case and our follow-up programme was defective, with the longest period being 180 days. Conclusion. Mucocele of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the right lower abdomen. Owing to its rarity, it continues to intrigue the surgeon as well as the radiologist and pathologist alike. For mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, right hemicolectomy is usually needed, whereas for hyperplasia and cystadenoma, appendectomy usually suffices if the resection margins are free. For mucinous tumours of uncertain malignant potential and low grade mucinous tumours as well as pseudomyxoma peritonei, the decision is not as simple. As for laparoscopic surgery, no solid proof exists with or against its safety. Although not yet standardized, perioperative colonoscopy and regular follow-up to detect early recurrences should probably be part of the management plan. Mohammad Ezzedien Rabie, Mubarak Al Shraim, Mohammad Saad Al Skaini, Saad Alqahtani, Ismail El Hakeem, Abdulla Saad Al Qahtani, Tarek Malatani, and Abduelah Hummadi Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Ezzedien Rabie et al. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: Intraoperative Parameters in Open (Coliseum) versus Closed Abdomen Hipec Sun, 15 Feb 2015 09:29:07 +0000 Background. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC play an important role in well-selected patients with PC. The aim of the study is to present the differences in the intraoperative parameters in patients who received HIPEC in two different manners, open versus closed abdomen. Patients and Methods. The population includes 105 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal, gastric, and ovarian cancer, sarcoma, mesothelioma, and pseudomyxoma peritonei. Group A received HIPEC using the open technique and Group B received HIPEC with the closed technique. The main end points were morbidity, mortality, and overall hospital stay. Results. There were two postoperative deaths (3.3%) in the open group versus no deaths in the closed group. Twenty-two patients in the open group (55%) had grade III-IV complications versus 18 patients in the closed group (40%). There are more stable intraoperative conditions in the closed abdomen HIPEC in CVP, pulse rate, and systolic pressure parameters. Conclusions. Both methods are equal in the HIPEC procedures. Perhaps the closed method is the method of choice for frail patients due to more stable hemodynamic parameters. E. Halkia, A. Tsochrinis, D. T. Vassiliadou, A. Pavlakou, A. Vaxevanidou, A. Datsis, E. Efstathiou, and J. Spiliotis Copyright © 2015 E. Halkia et al. All rights reserved. Implementation of a Robotic Surgical Program in Gynaecological Oncology and Comparison with Prior Laparoscopic Series Sun, 15 Feb 2015 08:20:23 +0000 Background. Robotic surgery in gynaecological oncology is a rapidly developing field as it offers several technical advantages over conventional laparoscopy. An audit was performed on the outcome of robotic surgery during our learning curve and compared with recent well-established laparoscopic procedure data. Method. Following acquisition of the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA), we prospectively analysed all cases performed over the first six months by one experienced gynaecologist who had been appropriately trained and mentored. Data on age, BMI, pathology, surgery type, blood loss, morbidity, return to theatre, hospital stay, and readmission rate were collected and compared with a consecutive series over the preceding 6 months performed laparoscopically by the same team. Results. A comparison of two consecutive series was made. The mean age was somewhat different, 55 years in the robotic versus 69 years in the laparoscopic group, but obesity was a feature of both groups with a mean of BMI 29.3 versus 28.06, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant . Three subgroups of minimal access surgical procedures were performed: total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (TH + BSO), total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy plus bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy (TH + BSO + BPLND), and radical hysterectomy plus bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy (RH + BPLND). The mean time taken to perform surgery for TH + BSO was longer in the robotic group, 151.2 min compared to 126.3 min in the laparoscopic group. TH + BSO + BPLND surgical time was similar to 178.3 min in robotic group and 176.5 min in laparoscopic group. RH + BPLND surgical time was similar, 263.6 min (robotic arm) and 264.0 min (laparoscopic arm). However, the numbers in this initial analysis were small especially in the last two subgroups and do not allow for statistical analysis. The rate of complications necessitating intervention (Clavien-Dindo classification grade 2/3) was higher in the robotic arm (22.7%) compared to the laparoscopic approach (4.5%). The readmission rate was higher in the robotic group (18.2%) compared to the laparoscopic group (4.5%). The return to theatre in the robotic group was 18.2% and 4.5% in laparoscopic group. Uncomplicated robotic surgery hospital stay appeared to be shorter, 1.3 days compared to the uncomplicated laparoscopic group, 2.5 days. There was no conversion to the open procedure in either arm. Estimated blood loss in all cases was less than 100 mL in both groups. Conclusion. Robotic surgery is comparable to laparoscopic surgery in blood loss; however, the hospital stay in uncomplicated cases appears to be longer in the laparoscopic arm. Surgical robotic time is equivalent to laparoscopic in complex cases but may be longer in cases not requiring lymph node dissection. The robotic surgery team learning curve may be associated with higher rate of morbidity. Further research on the benefits to the surgeon is needed to clarify the whole picture of this versatile novel surgical approach. Natalia Povolotskaya, Robert Woolas, and Dirk Brinkmann Copyright © 2015 Natalia Povolotskaya et al. All rights reserved. Pelvic Exenteration: Experience from a Rural Cancer Center in Developing World Sun, 08 Feb 2015 13:33:11 +0000 Background. Pelvic exenteration (PE) is a morbid procedure. Ours is a rural based cancer center limited trained surgical oncology staff. Hence, this audit was planned to evaluate morbidity and outcomes of all patients undergoing PE at our center. Methods. This is a IRB approved retrospective audit of all patients who underwent PE at our center from January 2010 to August 2013. The toxicity grades were retrospectively assigned according to the CTCAE version 4.02 criteria. Chi-square test was done to identify factors affecting grades 3–5 morbidity. Kaplan Meier survival analysis has been used for estimation of median PFS and OS. Results. 34 patients were identified, with the median age of 52 years (28–73 years). Total, anterior, posterior, and modified posterior exenterations were performed in 4 (11.8%), 5 (14.7%), 14 (41.2%), and 11 (32.4%) patients, respectively. The median time for surgery was 5.5 hours (3–8 hours). The median blood loss was 500 mL (200–4000 mL). CTCAE version 4.02 grades 3-4 toxicity was seen in nine patients (25.7%). The median estimated progression free survival was 31.76 months (25.13–38.40 months). The 2-year overall survival was 97.14%. Conclusion. PE related grades 3–5 morbidity of 25.7% and mortality of 2.9% at our resource limited center are encouraging. Sampada B. Dessai, Satheesan Balasubramanian, Vijay M. Patil, Santam Chakraborty, Atanu Bhattacharjee, and Syam Vikram Copyright © 2015 Sampada B. Dessai et al. All rights reserved. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:12:27 +0000 Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy. N. N. Basu, L. Barr, G. L. Ross, and D. G. Evans Copyright © 2015 N. N. Basu et al. All rights reserved. Minimising Unnecessary Mastectomies in a Predominantly Chinese Community Mon, 26 Jan 2015 13:49:12 +0000 Background. Recent data shows that the use of breast conservation treatment (BCT) for breast cancer may result in superior outcomes when compared with mastectomy. However, reported rates of BCT in predominantly Chinese populations are significantly lower than those reported in Western countries. Low BCT rates may now be a concern as they may translate into suboptimal outcomes. A study was undertaken to evaluate BCT rates in a cohort of predominantly Chinese women. Methods. All patients who underwent surgery on the breast at the authors’ healthcare facility between October 2008 and December 2011 were included in the study and outcomes of treatment were evaluated. Results. A total of 171 patients were analysed. Two-thirds of the patients were of Chinese ethnicity. One hundred and fifty-six (85.9%) underwent BCT. Ninety-eight of 114 Chinese women (86%) underwent BCT. There was no difference in the proportion of women undergoing BCT based on ethnicity. After a median of 49 months of follow-up, three patients (1.8%) had local recurrence and 5 patients (2.9%) suffered distant metastasis. Four patients (2.3%) have died from their disease. Conclusion. BCT rates exceeding 80% in a predominantly Chinese population are possible with acceptable local and distant control rates, thereby minimising unnecessary mastectomies. Mona P. Tan, Nadya Y. Sitoh, and Yih Y. Sitoh Copyright © 2015 Mona P. Tan et al. All rights reserved. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:47:48 +0000 Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU) is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i) CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii) It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii) It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv) It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v) CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi) There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo Copyright © 2015 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Feasibility of Performing Window of Opportunity Trials in Breast Cancer Tue, 20 Jan 2015 07:56:06 +0000 Background. The waiting period to surgery represents a valuable “window of opportunity” to evaluate novel therapeutic strategies. Interventional studies performed during this period require significant multidisciplinary collaboration to overcome logistical hurdles. We undertook a one-year prospective window of opportunity study to assess feasibility. Methods. Eligible newly diagnosed postmenopausal, estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients awaiting primary surgery received anastrozole daily until surgery. Feasibility was assessed by (a) the proportion of patients who consented and (b) completed the study. Comparison of pre- and poststudy Ki67 labelling index and cleaved caspase 3 scores (CC3) was performed. Results. 22/131 (16.8%) patients were confirmed eligible and 20/22 (91%) patients completed the study. 19/20 (95%) patients agreed to undergo optional additional tissue biopsies. The mean duration of anastrozole use was 24.7 (15–44) days. There were a statistically significant decline in mean Ki67 indices of 48.8% () and a trend towards significance in the decline of CC3 () when comparing pre- with posttreatment values. Conclusion. window of opportunity trials in breast cancer are a feasible way of assessing the biologic efficacy of different therapies in the presurgical setting. The majority of eligible women were willing to participate including undergoing additional tissue biopsies. Angel Arnaout, Susan Robertson, Iryna Kuchuk, Demetrios Simos, Gregory R. Pond, Christina L. Addison, Mehrzad Namazi, and Mark Clemons Copyright © 2015 Angel Arnaout et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Incidentally Detected Lung Cancers Mon, 05 Jan 2015 08:54:30 +0000 Objective. To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in incidentally detected lung cancer and in symptomatic lung cancer. Material and Methods. We designed a retrospective study including all patients undergoing pulmonary resection with a curative intention for NSCLC. They were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of cancer-related symptoms at diagnosis in asymptomatic (ASX)—incidental diagnosis—or symptomatic. Results. Of the 593 patients, 320 (53.9%) were ASX. In 71.8% of these, diagnosis was made by chest X-ray. Patients in the ASX group were older (), had a higher prevalence of previous malignancy (), presented as a solitary nodule more frequently (), and were more likely to have earlier-stage disease and smaller cancers (). A higher prevalence of incidental detection was observed in the last ten years (). Overall 5-year survival was higher for ASX (). Median survival times in pathological stages IIIB-IV were not significantly different. Conclusion. Incidental finding of NSCLC is not uncommon even among nonsmokers. It occurred frequently in smokers and in those with history of previous malignancy. Mortality of incidental diagnosis group was lower, but the better survival was related to the greater number of patients with earlier-stage disease. S. Quadrelli, G. Lyons, H. Colt, D. Chimondeguy, and A. Buero Copyright © 2015 S. Quadrelli et al. All rights reserved. Close Margins in Oral Cancers: Implication of Close Margin Status in Recurrence and Survival of pT1N0 and pT2N0 Oral Cancers Tue, 11 Nov 2014 11:54:24 +0000 Introduction. Among all prognostic factors, “margin status” is the only factor under clinician’s control. Current guidelines describe histopathologic margin of >5 mm as “clear margin” and 1–5 mm as “close margin.” Ambiguous description of positive margin in the published data resulted in comparison of microscopically “involved margin” and “close margin” together with “clear margin” in many publications. Authors attempted to compare the outcome of close and clear margins of stage I and stage II squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity to investigate the efficacy of description of margin status. Patients and Methods. Historical cohorts of patients treated between January 2010 and December 2011 at tertiary cancer hospital were investigated and filtered for stage I and stage II primary squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity. Patients with margin status of tumor at margin or within 1mm from cut margin were excluded and analyzed in multivariate logistic regression model for locoregional recurrences and Cox regression for overall survival. Results. A total of 104 patients fulfilled the abovementioned criteria, of whom 36 were “clear margin” and 68 were “close margin” with median period of follow-up of 39 months. There was no significant difference in locoregional recurrence (P value: 0.0.810) and survival (P value: 0.0.851) among “close margin” and “clear margin” patients. Sandhya Gokavarapu, Ravi Chander, Nagendra Parvataneni, and Sreenivasa Puthamakula Copyright © 2014 Sandhya Gokavarapu et al. All rights reserved. Emergency Surgery for Metastatic Melanoma Tue, 28 Oct 2014 06:40:32 +0000 Visceral metastases from malignant melanoma (stage M1c) confer a very poor prognosis, as documented on the most recent revised version of the TNM/AJCC staging system. Emergency surgery for intra-abdominal complications from the disease is rare. We report on our 5-year single institution experience with surgical management of metastatic melanoma to the viscera in the emergent setting. From 2009 to 2013, 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were admitted emergently due to an acute abdomen. Clinical manifestations encompassed intestinal obstruction and bleeding. Surgical procedures involved multiple enterectomies with primary anastomoses in 8 patients, and one patient underwent splenectomy, one adrenalectomy, one right colectomy, one gastric wedge resection, one gastrojejunal anastomosis, and one transanal debulking, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 7 percent. Median follow-up was 14 months. Median overall survival was 14 months. Median disease free survival was 7.5 months. One-year overall survival was 64.2 percent and 2-year overall survival was 14.2 percent. Emergency surgery for metastatic melanoma to the viscera is rare. Elective curative surgery combined with novel cytotoxic systemic therapies is under investigation in an attempt to grant survival benefit in melanoma patients with visceral disease. Dimitrios Mantas, Petros Tsaparas, Petros Charalampoudis, Helen Gogas, and Gregory Kouraklis Copyright © 2014 Dimitrios Mantas et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a New Modification of Pancreaticogastrostomy after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Anastomosis of the Pancreatic Duct to the Gastric Mucosa with Invagination of the Pancreatic Remnant End into the Posterior Gastric Wall for Patients with Cancer Head of Pancreas and Periampullary Carcinoma in terms of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula Formation Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background/Objectives. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains the main problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy and determines to a large extent the final outcome. We describe a new modification of pancreaticogastrostomy which combines duct to mucosa anastomosis with suturing the pancreatic capsule to posterior gastric wall and then invaginating the pancreatic remnant into the posterior gastric wall. This study was designed to assess the results of this new modification of pancreaticogastrostomy. Methods. The newly modified pancreaticogastrostomy was applied to 37 consecutive patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer (64.86%) or cancer head of the pancreas (35.14%). Eighteen patients (48.65%) had a soft pancreatic remnant, 13 patients (35.14%) had firm pancreatic remnant, and 6 patients (16.22%) had intermediate texture of pancreatic remnant. Rate of mortality, early postoperative complications, and hospital stay were also reported. Results. Operative mortality was zero and morbidity was 29.73%. Only three patients (8.11%) developed pancreatic leaks; they were treated conservatively. Eight patients (16.1%) had delayed gastric emptying, one patient (2.70%) had minor hemorrhage, one patient (2.70%) had biliary leak, and four patients (10.81%) had superficial wound infection. Conclusions. The new modified pancreatogastrostomy seems safe and reliable with low rate of POPF. However, further prospective controlled trials are essential to support these results. Mohamed Mazloum Osman and Walid Abd El Maksoud Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Mazloum Osman and Walid Abd El Maksoud. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer: The First Experience from Pakistan Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:10:51 +0000 Background. Two common procedures for esophageal resection are Ivor Lewis esophagectomy and transhiatal esophagectomy. Both procedures have high morbidity rates of 20–46%. Minimally invasive esophagectomy has been introduced to decrease morbidity. We report initial experience of MIE to determine the morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure during learning phase. Material and Methods. Patients undergoing MIE at our institute from January 2011 to May 2013 were reviewed. Record was kept for any morbidity and mortality. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies and continuous variables were presented as median. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier curves. Results. We performed 51 minimally invasive esophagectomies. Perioperative morbidity was in 16 (31.37%) patients. There were 3 (5.88%) anastomotic leaks. We encountered 1 respiratory complication. Reexploration was required in 3 (5.88%) patients. Median operative time was 375 minutes. Median hospital stay was 10 days. The most frequent long-term morbidity was anastomotic narrowing observed in 5 (9.88%) patients. There were no perioperative mortalities. Our mean overall survival was 37.66 months (95% confidence interval 33.75 to 41.56 months). Mean disease-free survival was 24.43 months (95% CI 21.26 to 27.60 months). Conclusion. Minimally invasive esophagectomy, when performed in the learning phase, has acceptable morbidity and mortality. Farrukh Hassan Rizvi, Syed Shahrukh Hassan Rizvi, Aamir Ali Syed, Shahid Khattak, and Ali Raza Khan Copyright © 2014 Farrukh Hassan Rizvi et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Factors and Survival in Patients Treated Surgically for Recurrent Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Sun, 22 Jun 2014 07:37:14 +0000 Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare diagnosis, which is seldom cured when it recurs with metastatic disease. We evaluated patients who present with first time recurrence treated surgically to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. Methods. Over a 16-year period, 41 patients were operated on for recurrent uterine sarcoma. Data examined included patient age, date of initial diagnosis, tumor histology, grade at the initial diagnosis, cytopathology changes in tumor activity from the initial diagnosis, residual tumor after all operations, use of adjuvant therapy, dates and sites of all recurrences, and disease status at last followup. Results. 24 patients were operated for first recurrence of metastatic uterine LMS. Complete tumor resection with histologic negative margins was achieved in 16 (67%) patients. Overall survival was significantly affected by the FIGO stage at the time of the initial diagnosis, the ability to obtain complete tumor resection at the time of surgery for first time recurrent disease, single tumor recurrence, and recurrence greater than 12 months from the time of the initial diagnosis. Median disease-free survival was 14 months and overall survival was 27 months. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that stage 1 at the time of initial diagnosis, recurrence greater than 12 months, isolated tumor recurrence, and the ability to remove ability to perform complete tumor resection at the time of the first recurrence can afford improved survival in selected patientsat the time of the first recurrence can afford improved survival in selected patients. Han L. T. Hoang, Kelsey Ensor, Gerald Rosen, H. Leon Pachter, and Joseph S. Raccuia Copyright © 2014 Han L. T. Hoang et al. All rights reserved. Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in the Elderly Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:33:58 +0000 Background. The combined treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a rigorous surgical treatment, most suitable for young and good performance status patients. We evaluated the outcomes of elderly patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC for peritoneal carcinomatosis with careful perioperative care. Methods. All consecutive patients 70 years of age or older who were treated for peritoneal carcinomatosis over the past five years were included. Primary outcomes were perioperative morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results. From a pool of 100 patients, with a diagnosis of PC who underwent CRS and HIPEC in our center, we have included 30 patients at an age of 70 years or older and the results were compared to the patients younger than 70 years. The total morbidity rate was 50% versus 41.5% in the group younger than 70 years (NSS). The mortality rate was 3.3% in the elderly group versus 1.43% in the younger group (NSS). Median overall survival was 30 months in the older group versus 38 months in the younger group. Conclusion. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC for peritoneal carcinomatosis may be safely performed with acceptable morbidity in selected elderly patients. J. D. Spiliotis, E. Halkia, V. A. Boumis, D. T. Vassiliadou, A. Pagoulatou, and E. Efstathiou Copyright © 2014 J. D. Spiliotis et al. All rights reserved. Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Elective Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Thu, 27 Mar 2014 09:03:18 +0000 Background. The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence and risk factors for incisional surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing elective open surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods. We conducted prospective surveillance of incisional SSI after elective colorectal resections performed by a single surgeon for a 1-year period. Variables associated with infection, as identified in the literature, were collected and statistically analyzed for their association with incisional SSI development. Results. A total of 224 patients were identified for evaluation. The mean patient age was 67 years, and 120 (55%) were male. Thirty-three (14.7%) patients were diagnosed with incisional SSI. Multivariate analysis suggested that incisional SSI was independently associated with TNM stages III and IV (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and intraoperative hypotension (OR, 3.4). Conclusions. The incidence of incisional SSI in our cohort was well within values generally reported in the literature. Our data suggest the importance of the maintenance of intraoperative normotension to reduce the development of incisional SSI. Kosuke Ishikawa, Takaya Kusumi, Masao Hosokawa, Yasunori Nishida, Sosuke Sumikawa, and Hiroshi Furukawa Copyright © 2014 Kosuke Ishikawa et al. All rights reserved. The Aetiology of Delay to Commencement of Adjuvant Chemotherapy following Colorectal Resection Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:07:58 +0000 Purpose. Timely administration of adjuvant chemotherapy following colorectal resection is associated with improved outcome. We aim to assess the factors which are associated with delay to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who underwent colorectal resection as part of an enhanced recovery protocol. Method. A univariate and multivariate analysis of patient data collected as part of a prospectively maintained database of colorectal cancer patients between 2007 and 2012. Results. 166 patients underwent colorectal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days, and time to commencement of adjuvant chemotherapy was 50 days. Longer inpatient stay correlated with increased time to adjuvant chemotherapy (). Factors found to be independently associated with duration of hospital stay and time to commencement of adjuvant chemotherapy included stoma formation (), anastaomotic leak (), and preoperative albumin (). The use of laparoscopic surgery was associated with shorter time to adjuvant chemotherapy but did not reach significance (). Conclusion. A number of independent variables associated with delay to adjuvant therapy previously not described have been identified. Further work may be required to elucidate the effect that these variables have on long-term outcome. G. S. Simpson, R. Smith, P. Sutton, A. Shekouh, C. McFaul, M. Johnson, and D. Vimalachandran Copyright © 2014 G. S. Simpson et al. All rights reserved. Regional Failures after Selective Neck Dissection in Previously Untreated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity Tue, 11 Mar 2014 13:13:44 +0000 Aim. To share experience with regional failures after selective neck dissection in both node negative and positive previously untreated patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Patients and Methods. Data of 219 patients who underwent SND at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital from 2003 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, treatment modalities, and regional failures were assessed. Expected 5-year regional control was calculated and prognostic factors were determined. Results. Median follow-up was 29 (9–109) months. Common sites were anterior tongue in 159 and buccal mucosa in 22 patients. Pathological nodal stage was N0 in 114, N1 in 32, N2b in 67, and N2c in 5 patients. Fourteen (6%) patients failed in clinically node negative neck while 8 (4%) failed in clinically node positive patients. Out of 22 total regional failures, primary tumor origin was from tongue in 16 (73%) patients. Expected 5-year regional control was 95% and 81% for N0 and N+ disease, respectively (). Only 13% patients with well differentiated, T1 tumors in cN0 neck were pathologically node positive. Conclusions. Selective neck dissection yields acceptable results for regional management of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Wait and see policy may be effective in a selected subgroup of patients. Hassan Iqbal, Abu Bakar Hafeez Bhatti, Raza Hussain, and Arif Jamshed Copyright © 2014 Hassan Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. The Treatment of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Advanced Gastric Cancer: State of the Art Mon, 17 Feb 2014 16:18:07 +0000 Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the world; 53–60% of patients show disease progression and die of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PC of gastric origin has an extremely inauspicious prognosis with a median survival estimate at 1–3 months. Different studies presented contrasting data about survival rates; however, all agreed with the necessity of a complete cytoreduction to improve survival. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has an adjuvant role in preventing peritoneal recurrences. A multidisciplinary approach should be empowered: the association of neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy (NIPS), cytoreductive surgery (CRS), HIPEC, and early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) could increase the rate of completeness of cytoreduction (CC) and consequently survival rates, especially in patients with Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) ≤6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival also in PC from GC and adjuvant chemotherapy could prevent recurrence. In the last decade an interesting new drug, called Catumaxomab, has been developed in Germany. Two studies showed that this drug seems to improve progression-free survival in patients with GC; however, final results for both studies have still to be published. Giulia Montori, Federico Coccolini, Marco Ceresoli, Fausto Catena, Nicola Colaianni, Eugenio Poletti, and Luca Ansaloni Copyright © 2014 Giulia Montori et al. All rights reserved. Supraclavicular Artery Flap for Head and Neck Oncologic Reconstruction: An Emerging Alternative Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:01:40 +0000 Aim. Head and Neck oncologic resections often leave complex defects which are challenging to reconstruct. The need of the hour is a versatile flap which has the advantages of both a regional flap (viz. reliable and easy to harvest) and a free flap (thin, pliable with good colour match). In this a study we assessed the usefulness of the supraclavicular artery flap in head and neck oncologic defects. Materials and Method. The flap was used as a pedicled fasciocutanous and was based on the transverse supraclavicular artery. We assessed this reconstructive option for complications as well as its and functional out comes. Results. Eleven cases underwent supraclavicular artery flap between 20011-2012 of which 5 were males and 6 females. Mean defect size was 5 cm × 6 cm. Nine donor sites were closed primarily and 1 required split skin grafting. We encountered one complete flap loss which was attributed to a band of constricting skin bridge over the vascular pedicle in a defect involving lateral third of midface. Two patient developed pharyngeocutaneous fistula (without flap loss) out of 3 patients who underwent augmentation pharyngoplasty post Near total laryngectomy. Conclusion. Supra clavicular artery flap is a thin versatile, reliable, easy to harvest, with good cosmetic and functional outcome at both ends (recipient and donor) for reconstructing head and neck oncologic defects. Ashok Shenoy, Vijayraj S. Patil, B. S. Prithvi, P. Chavan, and Rajshekar Halkud Copyright © 2013 Ashok Shenoy et al. All rights reserved. Harmonic Scalpel versus Conventional Haemostasis in Neck Dissection: A Prospective Randomized Study Sun, 22 Dec 2013 12:00:12 +0000 Purpose. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare operative factors, postoperative outcomes, and surgical complications of neck dissection (ND) when using the harmonic scalpel (HS) versus conventional haemostasis (CH) (classic technique of tying and knots, resorbable ligature, and bipolar diathermy). Materials and methods. Sixty-one patients who underwent ND with primary head and neck cancer (HNSCC) resection were enrolled in this study and were randomized into two homogeneous groups: CH (conventional haemostasis with classic technique of tying and knots, resorbable ligature, and bipolar diathermy) and HS (haemostasis with harmonic scalpel). Outcomes of the study included operative time, intraoperative blood loss, drainage volume, postoperative pain, hospital stay, and incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results. The use of the HS reduced significantly the operating time, the intraoperative blood loss, the postoperative pain, and the volume of drainage. No significant difference was observed in mean hospital stay and perioperative, and postoperative complications. Conclusion. The HS is a reliable and safe tool for reducing intraoperative blood loss, operative time, volume of drainage and postoperative pain in patients undergoing ND for HNSCC. Multicenter randomized studies need to be done to confirm the advantages of this technique and to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio. Emanuele Ferri, Enrico Armato, Giacomo Spinato, Marcello Lunghi, Giancarlo Tirelli, and Roberto Spinato Copyright © 2013 Emanuele Ferri et al. All rights reserved. Diaphragmatic Peritonectomy versus Full Thickness Diaphragmatic Resection and Pleurectomy during Cytoreduction in Patients with Ovarian Cancer Wed, 18 Dec 2013 16:24:57 +0000 Objectives. Compare the surgical morbidity of diaphragmatic peritonectomy versus full thickness diaphragmatic resection with pleurectomy at radical debulking. Design. Prospective cohort study at the Oxford University Hospital. Methods. All debulking with diaphragmatic peritonectomy and/or full thickness resection with pleurectomy in the period from April 2009 to March 2012 were part of the study. Analysis is focused on the intra- and postoperative morbidity. Results. 42 patients were eligible for the study, 21 underwent diaphragmatic peritonectomy (DP, group 1) and 21 diaphragmatic full thickness resection (DR, group 2). Forty patients out of 42 (93%) had complete tumour resection with no residual disease. Histology confirmed the presence of cancer in diaphragmatic peritoneum of 19 patients out of 21 in group 1 and all 21 patients of group 2. Overall complications rate was 19% in group 1 versus 33% in group 2. Pleural effusion rate was 9.5% versus 14.5% and pneumothorax rate was 14.5% only in group 2. Two patients in each group required postoperative chest drains (9.5%). Conclusions. Diaphragmatic surgery is an effective methods to treat carcinomatosis of the diaphragm. Patients in the pleurectomy group experienced pneumothorax and a higher rate of pleural effusion, but none had long-term morbidity or additional surgical interventions. P. N. J. Pathiraja, R. Garruto-Campanile, and R. Tozzi Copyright © 2013 P. N. J. Pathiraja et al. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Associated with Neurofibromatosis 1: A Single Centre Experience and Systematic Review of the Literature Including 252 Cases Mon, 09 Dec 2013 16:38:52 +0000 Aims. The objectives of this study were (a) to report our experience regarding the association between neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); (b) to provide a systematic review of the literature in this field; and (c) to compare the features of NF1-associated GISTs with those reported in sporadic GISTs. Methods. We reported two cases of NF1-associated GISTs. Moreover we reviewed 23 case reports/series including 252 GISTs detected in 126 NF1 patients; the data obtained from different studies were analyzed and compared to those of the sporadic GISTs undergone surgical treatment at our centre. Results. NF1 patients presenting with GISTs had a homogeneous M/F ratio with a mean age of 52.8 years. NF1-associated GISTs were often reported as multiple tumors, mainly incidental, localized at the jejunum, with a mean diameter of 3.8 cm, a mean mitotic count of 3.0/50 HPF, and KIT/PDGFRα wild type. We reported a statistical difference comparing the age and the symptoms at presentation, the tumors’ diameters and localizations, and the risk criteria of the NF1-associated GISTs comparing to those documented in sporadic GISTs. Conclusions. NF1-associated GISTs seem to have a distinct phenotype, specifically younger age, distal localization, small diameter, and absence of KIT/PDGRFα mutations. Pier Federico Salvi, Laura Lorenzon, Salvatore Caterino, Laura Antolino, Maria Serena Antonelli, and Genoveffa Balducci Copyright © 2013 Pier Federico Salvi et al. All rights reserved. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma Sun, 08 Dec 2013 11:17:41 +0000 Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99) and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG). The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq), and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4) were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40) had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique. Vikalp Jain, Brett T. Phillips, Nicole Conkling, and Colette Pameijer Copyright © 2013 Vikalp Jain et al. All rights reserved. Are the American Society for Radiation Oncology Guidelines Accurate Predictors of Recurrence in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Balloon-Based Brachytherapy? Sun, 08 Dec 2013 09:15:00 +0000 The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) consensus statement (CS) provides guidelines for patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) following breast conserving surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate recurrence rates based on ASTRO CS groupings. A single institution review of 238 early stage breast cancer patients treated with balloon-based APBI via balloon based brachytherapy demonstrated a 4-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate of 5.1%. There were no significant differences in the 4-year actuarial IBTR rates between the “suitable,” “cautionary,” and “unsuitable” ASTRO categories (0%, 7.2%, and 4.3%, resp., ). ER negative tumors had higher rates of IBTR than ER positive tumors. The ASTRO groupings are poor predictors of patient outcomes. Further studies evaluating individual clinicopathologic features are needed to determine the safety of APBI in higher risk patients. Moira K. Christoudias, Abigail E. Collett, Tari S. Stull, Edward J. Gracely, Thomas G. Frazier, and Andrea V. Barrio Copyright © 2013 Moira K. Christoudias et al. All rights reserved. Gastric Cancer in Young Patients Sat, 07 Dec 2013 11:00:50 +0000 Aim. The aim of this study was to see the clinical, pathological, and demographic profile of young patients with stomach carcinoma besides association with p53. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of young patients with stomach carcinoma from January 2005 to December 2009. A total of 50 patients with age less than 40 years were studied. Results. Male female ratio was 1 : 1.08 in young patients and 2.5 : 1 in older patients. A positive family history of stomach cancer in the first degree relatives was present in 10% of young patients. Resection was possible only in 50% young patients. 26% young patients underwent only palliative gastrojejunostomy. The most common operation was lower partial gastrectomy in 68%. Amongst the intraoperative findings peritoneal metastasis was seen in 17.4% in young patients. 50% young patients presented in stage IV as per AJCC classification ( value .004; sig.). None of the patients presented as stage 1 disease in young group. Conclusion. Early detection of stomach carcinoma is very important in all patients but in young patients it is of paramount importance. Manzoor A. Dhobi, Khursheed Alam Wani, Fazl Qadir Parray, Rouf A. Wani, Mohd Lateef Wani, G. Q. Peer, Safiya Abdullah, Imtiyaz A. Wani, Muneer A. Wani, Mubashir A. Shah, and Natasha Thakur Copyright © 2013 Manzoor A. Dhobi et al. All rights reserved. Baseline Quality of Life Factors Predict Long Term Survival after Elective Resection for Colorectal Cancer Wed, 27 Nov 2013 11:24:28 +0000 Background. Studies have shown an association between baseline quality of life (Qol) and survival in advanced cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate their predictive value in long term survival after elective colorectal cancer resection. Methods. A consecutive series of patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery for nonmetastatic disease were recruited in 2003/04. Patients completed standardized quality of life questionnaires (HADS, FACTC, MRS, and PANAS) prior to and 6 weeks after surgery. Univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards) were performed to predict long term survival. Results. Ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-five (67%) were male and the median age of the group was 70 years. Forty-six (47.5%) patients had died and the mean survival was 1,741 days (median 2159, range 9–2923 days). Preoperative mood rating scale and functional assessment of cancer therapy-colorectal FACT C emotional well-being and postoperative FACT C additional concerns were independent predictors of long term survival. Conclusion. Incorporating psychosocial measures in preoperative assessment of cancer patients could help to identify patients who require assessment with a view to implementing psychosocial interventions. These active interventions to maximize mood and well-being should form an integral part of multidisciplinary treatment in these patients. Abhiram Sharma, Leslie G. Walker, and John R. T. Monson Copyright © 2013 Abhiram Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Trail Overexpression Inversely Correlates with Histological Differentiation in Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma Mon, 07 Oct 2013 09:33:18 +0000 Introduction. Despite their histological resemblance to colorectal adenocarcinoma, there is some information about the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinomas (ITACs). To evaluate the possible role of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene defects in ITAC, by investigating the immunohistochemical expression of TRAIL gene product in a group of ethmoidal ITACs associated with occupational exposure. Material and Methods. Retrospective study on 23 patients with pathological diagnosis of primary ethmoidal ITAC. Representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block from each case was selected for immunohistochemical studies using the antibody against TRAIL. Clinicopathological data were also correlated with the staining results. Results. The immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that poorly differentiated cases showed a higher percentage of TRAIL expressing cells compared to well-differentiated cases. No correlation was found with other clinicopathological parameters, including T, stage and relapses. Conclusion. The relationship between upregulation of TRAIL and poorly differentiated ethmoidal adenocarcinomas suggests that the mutation of this gene, in combination with additional genetic events, could play a role in the pathogenesis of ITAC. M. Re, A. Santarelli, M. Mascitti, F. Bambini, L. Lo Muzio, A. Zizzi, and C. Rubini Copyright © 2013 M. Re et al. All rights reserved. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Indications and Extent of Central Neck Dissection—Our Experience Thu, 26 Sep 2013 10:59:39 +0000 The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of metastases in the central neck compartment and examine the morbidity and rate of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with or without a central neck dissection. Two hundred and fifteen patients undergoing total thyroidectomy with preoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, in the absence of suspicious nodes, were divided in two groups: those who underwent a thyroidectomy only (group A; ) and those who also received a central neck dissection (group B; ). Five cases (2.32%) of nodal recurrence were observed: 3 in group A and 2 in group B. Tumor histology was associated with a risk of recurrence: Hürthle cell-variant and tall cell-variant carcinomas were associated with a high risk of recurrence. Multifocality and extrathyroidal invasion also presented a higher risk, while smaller tumors were at lower risk. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic central neck dissection should be reserved for high-risk patients only. A wider use of immunocytochemical and genetic markers to improve preoperative diagnosis and the development of methods for the intraoperative identification of metastatic lymph nodes will be useful in the future for the improved selection of patients for central neck dissections. Pietro Giorgio Calò, Fabio Medas, Giuseppe Pisano, Francesco Boi, Germana Baghino, Stefano Mariotti, and Angelo Nicolosi Copyright © 2013 Pietro Giorgio Calò et al. All rights reserved. Tumor Regression Grades: Can They Influence Rectal Cancer Therapy Decision Tree? Wed, 25 Sep 2013 10:19:53 +0000 Background. Evaluating impact of tumor regression grade in prognosis of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Materials and Methods. We identified from our colorectal cancer database 168 patients with LARC who received neoadjuvant therapy followed by complete mesorectum excision surgery between 2003 and 2011: 157 received 5-FU-based chemoradiation (CRT) and 11 short course RT. We excluded 29 patients, the remaining 139 were reassessed for disease recurrence and survival; the slides of surgical specimens were reviewed and classified according to Mandard tumor regression grades (TRG). We compared patients with good response (Mandard TRG1 or TRG2) versus patients with bad response (Mandard TRG3, TRG4, or TRG5). Outcomes evaluated were 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local, distant and mixed recurrence. Results. Mean age was 64.2 years, and median followup was 56 months. No statistically significant survival difference was found when comparing patients with Mandard TRG1 versus Mandard TRG2 (). Mandard good responders (TRG1 + 2) have significantly better OS and DFS than Mandard bad responders (TRG3 + 4 + 5) (OS ; DFS ). Conclusions. Mandard good responders had a favorable prognosis. Tumor response (TRG) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation should be taken into account when defining the optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with LARC. Marisa D. Santos, Cristina Silva, Anabela Rocha, Eduarda Matos, Carlos Nogueira, and Carlos Lopes Copyright © 2013 Marisa D. Santos et al. All rights reserved.