353405.fig.004a
(a) CAS-R-1, 1999
353405.fig.004b
(b) CAS-R-2, 2001
353405.fig.004c
(c) Robot CAS-R-2 in action
353405.fig.004d
(d) CAS-BH5, 2005
Figure 4: The time line of the development of home-made robotic system for neurosurgery in China from Generation 1 to Generation 5 (private communication).