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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 404025, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/404025
Research Article

Involvement of Inflammation and Adverse Vascular Remodelling in the Blood Pressure Raising Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil in Rats

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 3 March 2012; Accepted 12 April 2012

Academic Editor: Masaki Mogi

Copyright © 2012 Chun-Yi Ng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oil thermoxidation during deep frying generates harmful oxidative free radicals that induce inflammation and increase the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, aortic morphometry, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, fresh palm oil (FPO), one-time-heated palm oil (1HPO), five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO), or ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO). Feeding duration was six months. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. After six months, the rats were sacrificed and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. FPO group showed significantly lower blood pressure than all other groups. Blood pressure was increased significantly in 5HPO and 10HPO groups. The aortae of 5HPO and 10HPO groups showed significantly increased thickness and area of intima-media, circumferential wall tension, and VCAM-1 than other groups. Elastic lamellae were disorganised and fragmented in 5HPO- and 10HPO-treated rats. VCAM-1 expression showed a significant positive correlation with blood pressure. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil causes blood pressure elevation, adverse remodelling, and increased VCAM-1, which suggests a possible involvement of inflammation.