International Journal of Vascular Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Dependence of Proximal GC Boxes and Binding Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Basal and Valproic Acid-Induced Expression of t-PA Sun, 07 Feb 2016 07:32:08 +0000 Objective. Endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is a pivotal response to protect the circulation from occluding thrombosis. We have shown that the t-PA gene is epigenetically regulated and greatly induced by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). We now investigated involvement of known t-PA promoter regulatory elements and evaluated dependence of potential interacting transcription factors/cofactors. Methods. A reporter vector with an insert, separately mutated at either the t-PA promoter CRE or GC box II or GC box III elements, was transfected into HT-1080 and HUVECs and challenged with VPA. HUVECs were targeted with siRNA against histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and selected transcription factors from the Sp/KLF family. Results. An intact VPA-response was observed with CRE mutated constructs, whereas mutation of GC boxes II and III reduced the magnitude of the induction by 54 and 79% in HT-1080 and 49 and 50% in HUVECs, respectively. An attenuated induction of t-PA mRNA was observed after Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5 depletion. KLF2 and p300 (HAT) were identified as positive regulators of basal t-PA expression and Sp4 and KLF9 as repressors. Conclusion. VPA-induced t-PA expression is dependent on the proximal GC boxes in the t-PA promoter and may involve interactions with Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5. Erik Ulfhammer, Pia Larsson, Mia Magnusson, Lena Karlsson, Niklas Bergh, and Sverker Jern Copyright © 2016 Erik Ulfhammer et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis of Thoracic Aortic Atherosclerosis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:12:49 +0000 The most severe complications after cardiac surgery are neurological complications including stroke which is often caused by emboli merging from atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta to the brain. Information about the thoracic aorta is crucial in reducing the embolization risk for both surgical open and closed chest procedures such as transaortic heart valve implantation. Several techniques are available to screen the ascending aorta, for example, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), epiaortic ultrasound, TEE A-view method, manual palpation, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper provides a description of the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques. Wouter W. Jansen Klomp, George J. Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, Arnoud W. van ’t Hof, Jan. G. Grandjean, and Arno P. Nierich Copyright © 2016 Wouter W. Jansen Klomp et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls Sun, 31 Jan 2016 10:12:35 +0000 This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, ). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, ). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. Richard B. Allan, Simon V. Vun, and J. Ian Spark Copyright © 2016 Richard B. Allan et al. All rights reserved. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players Sun, 24 Jan 2016 08:42:56 +0000 Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, , and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD ( mm versus  mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting ( mmHg versus  mmHg), submaximal exercise ( mmHg versus  mmHg), maximal exercise ( mmHg versus  mmHg), and 24-hour BP ( mmHg versus  mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose ( mg/dL versus  mg/dL), lower HDL ( mg/dL versus  mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (% versus %). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. Deborah L. Feairheller, Kristin R. Aichele, Joyann E. Oakman, Michael P. Neal, Christina M. Cromwell, Jessica M. Lenzo, Avery N. Perez, Naomi L. Bye, Erica L. Santaniello, Jessica A. Hill, Rachel C. Evans, Karla A. Thiele, Lauren N. Chavis, Allyson K. Getty, Tia R. Wisdo, JoAnna M. McClelland, Kathleen Sturgeon, and Pam Chlad Copyright © 2016 Deborah L. Feairheller et al. All rights reserved. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Patients with Cancer: Complications and Retrieval Success Rate Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:11:28 +0000 Active cancer (ACa) is strongly associated with venous thromboembolism and bleeding. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters (RIVCF) are frequently placed in these patients when anticoagulation cannot be continued. Objectives. To describe the complications and retrieval rate of inferior vena cava filters in patients with ACa. Methods. Retrospective review of 251 consecutive patients with RIVCF in a single institution. Results. We included 251 patients with RIVCF with a mean age of 58.1 years and a median follow-up of 5.4 months (164 days, IQR: 34–385). Of these patients 32% had ACa. There were no differences in recurrence rate of DVT between patients with ACa and those without ACa (13% versus 17%, = ns). Also, there were no differences in major filter complications (11% ACa versus 7% no ACa, = ns). The filter retrieval was not different between groups (log-rank = 0.16). Retrieval rate at 6 months was 49% in ACa patients versus 64% in patients without ACa ( = ns). Filter retrieval was less frequent in ACa patients with metastatic disease ( < 0.01) or a nonsurgical indication for filter placement ( = 0.04). Conclusions. No differences were noted in retrieval rate, recurrent DVT, or filter complications between the two groups. ACa should not preclude the use of RIVCF. Ana I. Casanegra, Lisa M. Landrum, and Alfonso J. Tafur Copyright © 2016 Ana I. Casanegra et al. All rights reserved. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Tue, 19 Jan 2016 13:04:22 +0000 Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Anna Malashicheva, Daria Kostina, Aleksandra Kostina, Olga Irtyuga, Irina Voronkina, Larisa Smagina, Elena Ignatieva, Natalia Gavriliuk, Vladimir Uspensky, Olga Moiseeva, Jarle Vaage, and Anna Kostareva Copyright © 2016 Anna Malashicheva et al. All rights reserved. Childhood Obesity Associates Haemodynamic and Vascular Changes That Result in Increased Central Aortic Pressure with Augmented Incident and Reflected Wave Components, without Changes in Peripheral Amplification Mon, 11 Jan 2016 07:14:24 +0000 The aims were to determine if childhood obesity is associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize haemodynamic and vascular changes associated with BP changes in obese children and adolescents by means of analyzing changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR), and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse wave amplitude. We included 117 subjects (mean/range age: 10 (5–15) years, 49 females), who were obese (OB) or had normal weight (NW). Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV, and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, amplitude of forward and backward components) were measured with tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). With independence of the presence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or sedentarism, the aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in OB than in NW subjects. The increase in central BP could not be explained by the elevation in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave and higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP could be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflect wave components associated to augmented SV and/or PWV. Juan M. Castro, Victoria García-Espinosa, Santiago Curcio, Maite Arana, Pedro Chiesa, Gustavo Giachetto, Yanina Zócalo, and Daniel Bia Copyright © 2016 Juan M. Castro et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:00:10 +0000 Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. Mathew P. Doyle, Annette Li, Claudia I. Villanueva, Sheen C. S. Peeceeyen, Michael G. Cooper, Kevin C. Hanel, Gary G. Fermanis, and Greg Robertson Copyright © 2015 Mathew P. Doyle et al. All rights reserved. Multidisciplinary Management of Carotid Body Tumors in a Tertiary Urban Institution Wed, 09 Dec 2015 11:42:45 +0000 Objective. Aim of this study is to present the experience of our institution in carotid body tumors (CBTs) treatment. Methods. All cases treated in a Vascular Surgery Department within 2.5 years (03/2013–09/2015) were retrospectively evaluated. Demographics, diagnostic, and treatment strategy were recorded. All patients with known CBT underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively. All cases were classified according to the Shamblin type and evaluated by a radiologist, otolaryngologist, and anesthesiologist before and after surgery. Major outcomes included mortality, stroke, cranial nerve injury, and recurrence. Results. Overall, nine patients (mean age: 59.5 ± 16.3 years) with a total of ten CBTs were treated. There was no gender prevalence and most of the cases (55%) were asymptomatic. There were no functional or familial cases. There was only one bilateral case treated in a staged manner. No preoperative embolization of CBTs was performed. Mortality and stroke rates were null. No severe complication was observed in the early and late setting. No malignancy was recorded. Mean follow-up was 15.6 ± 7.8 months. Conclusions. Multidisciplinary management of patients with CBTs is imperative for optimal results, especially in type III tumors, bilateral or functional cases. After careful treatment planning and intraoperative manipulations, complications could be avoided even without preoperative embolization. George Galyfos, Ioannis Stamatatos, Stavros Kerasidis, Ioannis Stefanidis, Sotirios Giannakakis, Georgios Kastrisios, Georgios Geropapas, Gerasimos Papacharalampous, and Chrisostomos Maltezos Copyright © 2015 George Galyfos et al. All rights reserved. Aorto-Uni-Iliac Stent Grafts with and without Crossover Femorofemoral Bypass for Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Parallel Observational Comparative Study Thu, 03 Dec 2015 12:34:53 +0000 We investigated the safety and efficacy of primary aorto-uni-iliac (AUI) endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) without fem-fem crossover in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and concomitant aortoiliac occlusive disease. 537 EVARs were implemented between 2002 and 2015 in University Hospital Galway, a tertiary referral center for aortic surgery and EVAR. We executed a parallel observational comparative study between 34 patients with AUI with femorofemoral crossover (group A) and six patients treated with AUI but without the crossover (group B). Group B patients presented with infrarenal AAAs with associated total occlusion of one iliac axis and high comorbidities. Technical success was 97% () in group A and 85% () in group B (). Primary and assisted clinical success at 24 months were 88% () and 12% (), respectively, in group A, and 85% () and 15% (), respectively, in group B (). Reintervention rate was 10% () in group A and 0% in group B (). No incidence of postoperative critical lower limb ischemia or amputations occurred in the follow-up period. AUI without crossover bypass is a viable option in selected cases. Mohammed Elkassaby, Mahmoud Alawy, Mohamed Zaki Ali, Wael A. Tawfick, and Sherif Sultan Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Elkassaby et al. All rights reserved. Endovascular Stent Placement for Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Access Stenosis Mon, 16 Nov 2015 09:43:29 +0000 This study aims to report the outcomes of nitinol and polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent placement to treat hemodialysis arteriovenous access stenosis at a single center over a five-year period. Clinical and radiological information was reviewed retrospectively. Poststent primary and secondary patency rates were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Ten clinical variables were subjected to multivariate Cox regression analysis to determine predictors of patency after stent placement. During the study period 60 stents were deployed in 45 patients, with a mean follow-up of 24.5 months. The clinical and anatomical success rate was 98.3% (59/60). Poststent primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 64%, 46%, and 35%, respectively. Poststent secondary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 95%, 89%, and 85%, respectively. Stent placement for upper arm lesions and in access less than 12 months of age was associated with reduced primary patency (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 5.1, , and HR 3.5, , resp.). Resistant or recurrent stenosis can be successfully treated by endovascular stent placement with durable long-term patency, although multiple procedures are often required. Stent placement for upper arm lesions and in arteriovenous access less than 12 months of age was associated with increased risk of patency loss. Brendon L. Neuen, Richard A. Baer, Frank Grainer, and Murty L. Mantha Copyright © 2015 Brendon L. Neuen et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Sun, 04 Oct 2015 16:35:22 +0000 Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (). In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (). The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients. Hamad Al Shahi, Kazunori Shimada, Katsumi Miyauchi, Takuma Yoshihara, Eiryu Sai, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Ryo Naito, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Tetsuro Miyazaki, and Hiroyuki Daida Copyright © 2015 Hamad Al Shahi et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Early and Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Circulation and Their Clinical Association with Coronary Artery Disease Wed, 16 Sep 2015 13:13:21 +0000 The clinical implications of early and late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary artery disease (CAD) remain unclear. We investigated endothelial dysfunction in CAD by simultaneously examining early and late EPC colony formation and gene expression of specific surface markers in EPCs. EPCs were extracted from a total of 83 subjects with () and without () CAD. Early and late EPC colonies were formed from mononuclear cells extracted from peripheral blood. We found that fewer early EPC colonies were produced in the CAD group (7.2 ± 3.l/well) than those in the control group (12.4 ± 1.4/well, ), and more late EPC colonies were produced in the CAD group (0.8 ± 0.2/well) than those in the control group (0.25 ± 0.02/well, ). In the CAD group, the relative expression of CD31 and KDR of early and late EPCs was lower than in the control group. These results demonstrate that CAD patients could have increased late EPC density and that early and late EPCs in CAD patients exhibited immature endothelial characteristics. We suggest that changes in EPC colony count and gene expression of endothelial markers may have relation with development of CAD. Shotoku Tagawa, Chiaki Nakanishi, Masayuki Mori, Tsuyoshi Yoshimuta, Shohei Yoshida, Masaya Shimojima, Junichiro Yokawa, Masa-aki Kawashiri, Masakazu Yamagishi, and Kenshi Hayashi Copyright © 2015 Shotoku Tagawa et al. All rights reserved. Favorable Outcomes after Implantation of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Diabetic Population: Results from INDOLIMUS-G Diabetic Registry Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:08:08 +0000 Objective. The main aim is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and clinical performance of the Indolimus (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India) sirolimus-eluting stent in high-risk diabetic population with complex lesions. Methods. It was a multicentre, retrospective, non-randomized, single-arm study, which enrolled 372 diabetic patients treated with Indolimus. The primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), myocardial infarction (MI), and stent thrombosis (ST). The clinical follow-ups were scheduled at 30 days, 6 months, and 9 months. Results. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 53.4 ± 10.2 years. A total of 437 lesions were intervened successfully with 483 stents (1.1 ± 0.3 per lesion). There were 256 (68.8%) male patients. Hypertension and totally occluded lesions were found in 202 (54.3%) and 45 (10.3%) patients, respectively. The incidence of MACE at 30 days, 6 months and 9 months was 0 (0%), 6 (1.6%), and 8 (2.2%), respectively. The event-free survival at 9-month follow-up by Kaplan Meier method was found to be 97.8%. Conclusion. The use of biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with favorable outcomes. The results demonstrated in our study depict its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Anurag Polavarapu, Raghava Sarma Polavarapu, Jayesh Prajapati, Asif Raheem, Kamlesh Thakkar, Shivani Kothari, and Ashok Thakkar Copyright © 2015 Anurag Polavarapu et al. All rights reserved. Reduction of Pain and Edema of the Legs by Walking Wearing Elastic Stockings Sun, 23 Aug 2015 11:41:46 +0000 Aim. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the reduction of edema and pain with the use of elastic stockings. Method. The effect of walking on a treadmill for 50 minutes in the evening wearing elastic compression stockings on pain and edema was evaluated in a prospective randomized crossover clinical trial. In Assessment 1, the legs of participants were measured by volumetry at 7:00 a.m. and they were asked to perform their normal daily activities and to return at 4:00 p.m. Forty-two legs of 21 female patients with ages of the participants ranged from 32 to 72 years with signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease. The sizes of the legs of all patients were evaluated by water displacement volumetry and a visual analog scale was used to assess pain. Results. After walking for 50 minutes on the treadmill, the volume reduced (paired -test: value < 0.03). In relation to pain, there was a reduction in pain after the treadmill session using the elastic stocking (Wilcoxon signed rank test: value < 0.007). Conclusion. The reduction of edema and pain of the legs during the course of the day can be accomplished with the use of elastic stockings, as well as walking. Carlos Alberto Carvalho, Renata Lopes Pinto, Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy, and Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy Copyright © 2015 Carlos Alberto Carvalho et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of the Efficacy and Cost of Different Venous Leg Ulcer Dressings: A Retrospective Cohort Study Tue, 14 Apr 2015 06:50:47 +0000 Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed value of 0.251 and a two-tailed value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. Syed M. Asim Hussain Copyright © 2015 Syed M. Asim Hussain. All rights reserved. Vascular Leakage in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Is Associated with Dengue Infected Monocytes, Monocyte Activation/Exhaustion, and Cytokines Production Thu, 05 Feb 2015 07:23:27 +0000 The vascular leakage was shown by the increment of hematocrit (Hct), dengue viral infected monocyte, monocyte status, and cytokines production in patients infected with dengue virus. Dengue viral antigens were demonstrated in monocytes (CD14+) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The increased levels of Hct, interleukin- (IL-) 10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were detected in dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) patients as compared with other febrile illnesses (OFIs). The highest levels of Hct and IL-10 were detected in DSS patients as compared with other groups () especially on one day before and after defervescence. The unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated monocytes from DSS patients showed the significantly decreased of intracellular IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, the lowest level of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD11b expression on monocytes surface in DSS patients was also demonstrated. Furthermore, the negative correlations between IL-10 levels and intracellular IL-1β and MFI of CD11b expression in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated monocytes were also detected. Nevertheless, not only were the relationships between the prominent IL-10 and the suppression of intracellular monocyte secretion, namely, IL-1β, TNF-α, demonstrated but also the effect of vascular leakage was observed. Sirichan Chunhakan, Punnee Butthep, Sutee Yoksan, Kanchana Tangnararatchakit, and Ampaiwan Chuansumrit Copyright © 2015 Sirichan Chunhakan et al. All rights reserved. Contralateral Occlusion Increases the Risk of Neurological Complications Associated with Carotid Endarterectomy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:03:41 +0000 Objective. To report on the incidence and factors associated with the development of perioperative neurological complications following CEA in patients affected by carotid stenosis with contralateral occlusion (CO) and to compare results between those patients and the whole group of patients submitted to CEA at our vascular division from 1997 to 2012. Methods. Our nonrandomized prospective experience including 1639 patients consecutively submitted to CEA was retrospectively reviewed. 136 patients presented a CO contralateral to the treated carotid stenosis. Outcomes considered for analysis were perioperative neurological death rates, major and minor stroke rates, and a combined endpoint of all neurological complications. Results. CO patients more frequently were male, smokers, younger, and symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented with a preoperative brain infarct and associated peripheral arterial disease (P < 0.0001), and presented with higher perioperative major stroke rate than patients without CO (4.4% versus 1.2%, resp., P = 0.009). Factors associated with the highest neurological risk in CO patients were age >74 years and preoperative brain infarct (P = 0.03). The combination of the abovementioned factors significantly increased complication rates in CO patients submitted to CEA. Conclusions. In our experience CO patients were at high risk for postoperative neurological complications particularly when presenting association of advanced age and preoperative brain infarction. Laura Capoccia, Enrico Sbarigia, Anna Rita Rizzo, Chiara Pranteda, Danilo Menna, Pasqualino Sirignano, Wassim Mansour, Andrea Esposito, and Francesco Speziale Copyright © 2015 Laura Capoccia et al. All rights reserved. Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data Tue, 13 Jan 2015 07:47:27 +0000 Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. Alfred Gatt, Cynthia Formosa, Kevin Cassar, Kenneth P. Camilleri, Clifford De Raffaele, Anabelle Mizzi, Carl Azzopardi, Stephen Mizzi, Owen Falzon, Stefania Cristina, and Nachiappan Chockalingam Copyright © 2015 Alfred Gatt et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Colour Duplex Ultrasound with Computed Tomography to Measure the Maximum Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Diameter Sun, 23 Nov 2014 07:48:33 +0000 Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU) and computed tomography (CT) in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (<5.0 cm), medium (5.0–6.5 cm), and large (>6.5 cm) aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95) and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.). Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention. C. Gray, P. Goodman, S. A. Badger, M. K. O’Malley, M. K. O’Donohoe, and C. O. McDonnell Copyright © 2014 C. Gray et al. All rights reserved. Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model Mon, 17 Nov 2014 11:36:24 +0000 High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated . Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm. Chih-Zen Chang, Chih-Lung Lin, Shu-Chuan Wu, and Aij-Lie Kwan Copyright © 2014 Chih-Zen Chang et al. All rights reserved. Complex Common and Internal Iliac or Aortoiliac Aneurysms and Current Approach: Individualised Open-Endovascular or Combined Procedures Sun, 28 Sep 2014 08:37:25 +0000 Objective. Bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms constitute the utmost configuration of infrarenal aortoiliac disease. We detail characteristic aortoiliac disease patterns and reconstructive techniques we have used, along with a visualized decision-making chart and a short review of the literature. Material and Methods. A retrospective, observational study of twelve clinical cases of patients with aortoiliac disease are described. Two patients had a common iliac artery aneurysm and were managed by the application of inversed stent-grafts; another case was repaired by the insertion of a standard bifurcated stent-graft flared in the right common iliac artery and with an iliac branched device in the left iliac arterial axis. Open approach was used in 5 cases and in 4 cases a combination of aortouniliac stent-grafting with femoral-femoral bypass was applied. Results. Technical success was 100%. One endoleak type Ib in a flared iliac limb was observed and corrected by internal iliac embolism and use of an iliac limb stent-graft extension. We report 100% patency rate during 26.3 months of followup. Conclusion. Individualized techniques for the management of isolated iliac or aortoiliac aneurismal desease with special concern in maintaining internal iliac artery perfusion lead to elimination of perioperative complications and long-term durability and patency rates. Thomas Kotsis, Louizos Alexander Louizos, Evangelos Pappas, and Kassiani Theodoraki Copyright © 2014 Thomas Kotsis et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effect of Adjustments of Elastic Stockings to Maintain Reduction in Leg Volume after Mechanical Lymph Drainage Sun, 21 Sep 2014 09:24:01 +0000 The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of elastic compression stockings on volumetric variations of lymphedematous limbs between mechanical lymph drainage sessions. Eleven patients with Grade II leg lymphedema, regardless of etiology, were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The ages ranged from 47 to 83 years old with a mean of 62.4 years. Participants were submitted to mechanical lymph drainage (RAGodoy) associated with adjusted and unadjusted knee-high elastic compression stockings (20/30 Venosan). The effect of these stockings on the maintenance of volumetric reductions between sessions of lymph drainage was assessed. In all, 33 evaluations were carried out, 18 of patients using well-adjusted stockings and 15 with badly-adjusted stockings. The differences in volumes were significant (unpaired -test; -value < 0.0001). Adjusting the compression provided by elastic stockings according to the size of the leg has a synergistic effect in reducing volume during mechanical lymph drainage. José Maria Pereira de Godoy, Renata Lopes Pinto, Ana Carolina Pereira de Godoy, and Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy Copyright © 2014 José Maria Pereira de Godoy et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence, Correlates, and Prognosis of Peripheral Artery Disease in Rural Ecuador—Rationale, Protocol, and Phase I Results of a Population-Based Survey: An Atahualpa Project-Ancillary Study Sun, 21 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Little is known on the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in developing countries. Study design. Population-based study in Atahualpa. In Phase I, the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire (ECQ) was used for detection of suspected symptomatic PAD; persons with a negative ECQ but a pulse pressure ≥65 mmHg were suspected of asymptomatic PAD. In Phase II, the ankle-brachial index will be used to test reliability of screening instruments and to determine PAD prevalence. In Phase III, participants will be followed up to estimate the relevance of PAD as a predictor of vascular outcomes. Results. During Phase I, 665 Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were enrolled (mean age: 59.5 ± 12.6 years, 58% women). A poor cardiovascular health status was noticed in 464 (70%) persons of which 27 (4%) had a stroke and 14 (2%) had ischemic heart disease. Forty-four subjects (7%) had suspected symptomatic PAD and 170 (26%) had suspected asymptomatic PAD. Individuals with suspected PAD were older, more often women, and had a worse cardiovascular profile than those with nonsuspected PAD. Conclusions. Prevalence of suspected PAD in this underserved population is high. Subsequent phases of this study will determine whether prompt detection of PAD is useful to reduce the incidence of catastrophic vascular diseases in the region. Oscar H. Del Brutto, Mark J. Sedler, Robertino M. Mera, Pablo R. Castillo, Elizabeth H. Cusick, Jadry A. Gruen, Kelsie J. Phelan, Victor J. Del Brutto, Mauricio Zambrano, and David L. Brown Copyright © 2014 Oscar H. Del Brutto et al. All rights reserved. Potential Risk Factors for Varicose Veins with Superficial Venous Reflux Thu, 11 Sep 2014 06:02:03 +0000 The objective of the study is to evaluate a range of potential risk factors in the etiology of varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. Forty-nine patients attending a cardiovascular surgery clinic for the management of varicose disease between 2009 and 2010 were enrolled for the study. The age range of the patient group was 44,04 ± 15,05 years and female/male (F/M) ratio was 30/19. Twenty-six normal, healthy volunteers with the age of 40,94 ± 13,60 years and with the female/male ratio of 15/11 acted as control subjects. We investigated several parameters including body mass index, age, birth number > 1, standing for a long time (standing for 8 or more hours without taking a break), systemic diseases, family history, venous Doppler fındings, the levels of homocysteine, ferritin, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin, sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume, low density lipoprotein, and rheumatoid factor of the patient group and the control group. We also determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms and FV Leiden in both groups. In this small study, there appears to be no association between varicose veins and body mass index, smoking, type 2 DM, hypertension, family history, and birth number. A history of increased standing duration period (>8 hours) and rheumatoid factor positivity have association with varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. Nazmiye Selçuk Kapısız, Tülin Uzun Kulaoğlu, Turgay Fen, and Hasan Fahri Kapısız Copyright © 2014 Nazmiye Selçuk Kapısız et al. All rights reserved. Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats Tue, 22 Jul 2014 10:01:46 +0000 This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated occipital arteries (OAs) from sham-operated (SHAM) and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery) and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion) and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, and plasma renin concentrations than SHAM rats. The contractile responses to AII were markedly diminished in both proximal and distal segments of OAs from 2K-1C rats as compared to those from SHAM rats. The responses elicited by AVP were substantially greater in distal than in proximal segments of OAs from SHAM rats and that AVP elicited similar responses in OA segments from 2K-1C rats. The responses elicited by 5-HT were similar in proximal and distal segments from SHAM and 2K-1C rats. These results demonstrate that continued exposure to circulating AII and AVP in 2K-1C rats reduces the contractile efficacy of AII but not AVP or 5-HT. The diminished responsiveness to AII may alter the physiological status of OAs in vivo. Stephen P. Chelko, Chad W. Schmiedt, Tristan H. Lewis, Tom P. Robertson, and Stephen J. Lewis Copyright © 2014 Stephen P. Chelko et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Acquired and Genetic Risk Factors on the Prevention, Management, and Treatment of Thromboembolic Disease Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:30:01 +0000 Prevention, management, and treatment of venous thromboembolism requires understanding of the epidemiology and associated risk factors, particularly in recognizing populations warranting prophylaxis, in evaluating patients with high risk situations, and in determining the duration of anticoagulation required to minimize recurrent thrombosis and to avoid postthrombotic syndrome. The present paper reviews recent advances concerning acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis, analyses individual risks related to age, and focuses on thrombotic genetic risk factors and the synergistic gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and their importance in the management and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Raghid Kreidy Copyright © 2014 Raghid Kreidy. All rights reserved. Local Intracoronary Eptifibatide versus Mechanical Aspiration in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Tue, 03 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. We compared local delivery of intracoronary eptifibatide via perfusion catheter to thrombus aspiration in primary PCI. Background. Perfusion catheter increases local concentration of the drugs at the culprit site and prolongs their residency time. Methods. 75 patients with acute STEMI were randomized to three groups: 25 received local intracoronary eptifibatide and verapamil via perfusion catheter; 25 patients were managed by Diver CE thrombectomy device and 25 patients by primary PCI without thrombus aspiration. Primary end point was assessment of postprocedural TIMI flow, MPG, and corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) in the culprit vessel. Results. Perfusion catheter was superior to thrombus aspiration and conventional PCI as regards MBG (68% versus 36% in Diver CE and 20% in the control arm; value = 0.002), with shorter cTFC rates than thrombectomy and control groups ( versus and resp.; ). TIMI flow was not different between the 3 groups. Eptifibatide led to less time to peak CK (13.12 hours versus 16.5 and 19.5 hours, respectively, value = 0.001). Conclusion. Local intracoronary eptifibatide by perfusion catheter reduces thrombus burden with better results in microvascular perfusion assessed by cTFC and MBG compared to aspiration device or conventional PCI. Mohamed A. Hamza, Ayman Galal, Salwa Suweilam, and Mohamed Ismail Copyright © 2014 Mohamed A. Hamza et al. All rights reserved. Greater Endothelial Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Tue, 20 May 2014 08:06:21 +0000 We compared apoptosis, cellular oxidative stress, and inflammation of cultured endothelial cells treated with sera from 156 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and 16 healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we compared circulating inflammatory, antioxidant capacity, and vascular biomarkers between the two groups. The PAD group had a 164% higher value for endothelial cell apoptosis () and a 62% higher value for endothelial cellular reactive oxygen species production () than the control group. Furthermore, the PAD group had lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity activity (), higher inflammatory and vascular measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (), interleukin-8 (), serum amyloid A (), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (), adiponectin (), apolipoprotein B (), apolipoprotein CIII (), lower vascular endothelial growth factor-A (), and hepatocyte growth factor () than the control group. Subjects with PAD have greater endothelial apoptosis and oxidative stress than control subjects with low burden of comorbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with PAD have lower systemic antioxidant capacity and angiogenic measures and higher circulating inflammatory parameters. Andrew W. Gardner, Donald E. Parker, Polly S. Montgomery, Danuta Sosnowska, Ana I. Casanegra, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar, and William E. Sonntag Copyright © 2014 Andrew W. Gardner et al. All rights reserved. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:03:13 +0000 Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors. Zahra Pezeshki, Fatemeh Eshraghi-Jazi, and Mehdi Nematbakhsh Copyright © 2014 Zahra Pezeshki et al. All rights reserved.