Table 2: Summary of logistic regression model examining effects of land use categories and flyway regions (predictors) on whether a location is monarch-selected or random (response). Full model with all main effects and interactions was simplified using likelihood ratio tests (Δ deviance) to evaluate the importance of nonsignificant terms following Crawley [26]. Nested models without interaction terms were compared against the full model prior to the removal of any main effects. Significance of terms remaining in the final model are reported based on Wald . The effects of cropland and coniferous forest were not significant and removed from the final model.

VariabledfWald

Flyway region417.880.0013
Deciduous forest116.040.0001
Grassland10.0270.8690
Urban111.890.0006
Open water121.450.0000
Wetland110.050.0015
Flyway region grassland423.450.0001
Flyway region urban412.970.0114
Flyway region deciduous413.180.0104