Table 1: Citizen science typologies as described by Wiggins and Crowston [1].

TypeDescriptionExample

ActionEmploy volunteer-initiated participatory action research to encourage participant intervention in local concerns.Shermans Creek Conservation Association
(http://www.shermanscreek.org/)
ConservationAddress natural resource management goals, involving participants in stewardship for outreach and increased scope.Missouri Stream Team Project
(http://www.mostreamteam.org/)
InvestigationFocus of scientific research goals focussed on collecting data from the physical environment, usually underpinned by an hypothesis or research goal.BirdTrack
(http://www.bto.org/volunteer-surveys/birdtrack)
VirtualSimilar goals to the investigation project, but are entirely mediated by ICT having no physical element.Whale FM
(http://whale.fm/)
EducationEducation and outreach are their primary goals, often data is not collected in a meaningful way that might be useful to other researchers. Often provides formal and informal learning resources.Bird Sleuth
(http://www.birds.cornell.edu/birdsleuth)