Table 1: Aspects of the jaw musculature compared among the species of the Picini.

JMB. rubiginosusR. validusD. javanenseD. rafflesiiP. miniaceusP. mentalisP. puniceus

1Two bundles; rt1 laterally and medially Two bundles; rt1 mediallyOne bundle; rt1 laterally and mediallyOne bundle; rt1 laterally and mediallyOne bundle; rt1 laterally and mediallyOne bundle; rt1 laterally and mediallyOne bundle; rt1 laterally and medially

2One aponeurosisTwo aponeurosesOne aponeurosisTwo aponeurosesOne aponeurosisOne aponeurosisOne aponeurosis

3rl1 lateral zygomatic pr.rl1 dorsolateralrl1 lateral zygomatic prrl1 lateral zygomatic prrl1 dorsolateralrl1 dorsolateralrl1 dorsolateral

4v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—lateral v2 v1 dorsocaudal zygomatic process; deep portion—rostroventral v2 v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—lateral v2 v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—lateral v2 v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—rostroventral v2 v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—rostroventral v2 v1 rostral zygomatic process; deep portion—rostroventral v2

5cl1 from C1 crest otic pr. quadratecl1 from C1 crest otic pr. quadratecl1 from C1 crest otic pr. quadratecl1 from C1 crest otic pr. quadratecl1 ventral zygomatic process; two aponeurosescl1 ventral zygomatic process; two aponeurosescl1 ventral zygomatic process; two aponeuroses

6Aponeurosis origin Aponeurosis origin Aponeurosis origin Aponeurosis origin Fleshy originFleshy originFleshy origin

7Fleshy origin; one fleshy fiberAponeurotic origin; one fleshy fiberFleshy origin; one fleshy fiberFleshy origin; one fleshy fiberFleshy origin; one fleshy fiberFleshy origin; two fleshy fibersFleshy origin; one fleshy fiber

8Origin: lower part in the orbitOrigin: lower part in the orbitOrigin: high part in the orbitOrigin: lower part in the orbitOrigin: lower part in the orbitOrigin: lower part in the orbitOrigin: lower part in the orbit

9Double origin; superficial portion: origin at the top-orbital process of the quadrateSingle origin; superficial portion: origin at the top-orbital process of the quadrateDouble origin; superficial portion: origin-lateral surface orbital process of the quadrateDouble origin; superficial portion: origin-lateral surface orbital process of the quadrateDouble origin; superficial portion: origin at the top-orbital process of the quadrateDouble origin; superficial portion: origin at the top-orbital process of the quadrateDouble origin; superficial portion: origin at the top-orbital process of the quadrate

10One fleshy fibers in two partsTwo distinct bundles of fleshy fibersOne fleshy fibers in two partsOne fleshy fibers in two partsOne fleshy fibers in two partsOne fleshy fibers in two partsOne fleshy fibers in two parts

11Insertion: dorsal process pterygoidInsertion: dorsal process pterygoidInsertion: dorsal process pterygoidInsertion: dorsal process pterygoidInsertion: dorsocaudal pterygoid Insertion: dorsocaudal pterygoid Insertion: dorsocaudal pterygoid

12Two distinct bundles with associated aponeurosesTwo distinct bundles with associated aponeurosesTwo distinct bundles with associated aponeurosesThree distinct bundles with associated aponeurosesOne bundle with one aponeurosisTwo distinct bundles with associated aponeurosesOne bundle with one aponeurosis

13Associated with dorsalis lateralis Associated with dorsalis lateralis Associated with dorsalis lateralis; venter externus Associated with dorsalis lateralis Associated with dorsalis lateralis Associated with dorsalis lateralis Associated with dorsalis lateralis

14Two distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertionTwo distinct surfaces of insertion

15Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion Two aponeuroses of insertion

16Intermediate portion with fleshy fibersOne aponeurosis-intermediate portionIntermediate portion with fleshy fibersIntermediate portion with fleshy fibersOne aponeurosis-intermediate portionIntermediate portion with fleshy fibersOne aponeurosis-intermediate portion

JM: Jaw musculature. 1: M. adductor mandibulae externus rostralis temporalis; 2: M. adductor mandibulae externus rostralis medialis; 3: M. adductor mandibulae externus rostralis lateralis; 4: M. adductor mandibulae externus ventralis; 5: M. adductor mandibulae externus caudalis lateralis; 6: M. adductor mandibulae externus caudalis medials; 7: M. adductor mandibulae posterior; 8: M. pseudotemporalis superficialis; 9: M. pseudotemporalis profundus; 10: M. protractor quadrati; 11: M. protractor pterygoidei; 12: M. pterygoideus ventralis medialis; 13: M. pterygoideus ventralis lateralis; 14: M. pterygoideus dorsalis lateralis; 15: M. pterygoideus dorsalis medialis; 16: M. depressor mandibulae. Letters and numbers refer to aponeuroses.