Journal of Insects The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Laboratory Evaluation of Oviposition Behavior of Field Collected Aedes Mosquitoes Tue, 01 Jul 2014 06:42:19 +0000 Wild female Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were allowed to lay eggs in (i) ovitraps with different concentrations of NaCl, (ii) different coloured ovistrips, (iii) water from different sources, (iv) larva holding water, and different sized ovitraps for oviposition preference. Oviposition cycle was also studied in different photoperiod regimens. The number of eggs laid was observed to gradually decrease with increase in NaCl concentration in both the species. Experiments were conducted to determine egg laying preference for any specific colour of the ovistrip and black ovistrip was found to be most preferred by both the species. For oviposition preference, eight water samples collected from different sources were used and it was observed that the maximum number of eggs was laid in ovitraps containing distilled water followed by tap water. In addition, Aedes mosquitoes laid more number of eggs in ovitraps containing larval holding water than ovitraps containing distilled water. Further, both the species did not lay any egg in the smallest used ovitrap although the number of eggs was maximally deposited in the largest ovitrap used. In the present studies, both the Aedes species laid the maximum number of eggs in the 4th quarter of the light period with normal 12 h light and dark phases (LD 12 : 12). Subrat K. Panigrahi, Tapan K. Barik, Satyabrata Mohanty, and Niraj Kanti Tripathy Copyright © 2014 Subrat K. Panigrahi et al. All rights reserved. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti (L.) Mosquitoes in Mumbai International Seaport (India) to Monitor Potential Global Health Risks Sun, 29 Jun 2014 08:20:27 +0000 Aedes mosquitoes are highly invasive and can survive almost any climatic conditions. They transmit a number of major world's deadly diseases. Therefore, a study was undertaken during December 2010 to evaluate the entomo-epidemiological risk of Aedes mosquito borne diseases (VBD) in Mumbai international seaport areas to minimize potential global health risks and prevent introduction of new VBD in India. Surveys were undertaken in operational and residential areas of Mumbai Port Trust (MPT). All the entomological indices were found to be above the critical level, prescribed for seaports by International Health Regulations Act, 2005. The operational areas where large goods are handled from cargo ships were found to be more prone to mosquito breeding comparing to residential areas. High insecticide tolerance of Aedes aegypti population against temephos and fenthion from Mumbai port area is reported for the first time. A careful and regular invigilation of the international seaports to prevent building up of vector density of dengue/chikungunya and yellow fever is recommended. Kaushal Kumar, Abhay Kumar Sharma, Manas Sarkar, Arun Chauhan, and Rajeev Sharma Copyright © 2014 Kaushal Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Selection of Oviposition Sites by Libelloides coccajus (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae), North of the Alps: Implications for Nature Conservation Thu, 27 Mar 2014 08:24:38 +0000 (1) The survival of peripheral populations is often threatened, especially in a changing environment. Furthermore, such populations frequently show adaptations to local conditions which, in turn, may enhance the ability of a species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In conservation biology, peripheral populations are therefore of particular interest. (2) In northern Switzerland and southern Germany, Libelloides coccajus is an example of such a peripheral species. (3) Assuming that suitable oviposition sites are crucial to its long-term survival, we compared oviposition sites and adjacent control plots with regard to structure and composition of the vegetation. (4) Vegetation structure at and around oviposition sites seems to follow fairly stringent rules leading to at least two benefits for the egg clutches: (i) reduced risk of contact with adjacent plants, avoiding delayed drying after rainfall or morning dew and (ii) reduced shading and therefore higher temperatures. (5) Furthermore, the study showed that it is possible to successfully create secondary habitats for L. coccajus, as shown by a road verge in one of our study areas. It is likely that other artificial habitats such as abandoned gravel pits and quarries may also provide suitable habitats. Markus Müller, Jürg Schlegel, and Bertil O. Krüsi Copyright © 2014 Markus Müller et al. All rights reserved. Insect Diversity of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site: An Important Site for Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana Thu, 20 Feb 2014 13:36:43 +0000 An inventory of species diversity of insects of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site, with special reference to species of conservation concern, was carried out as part of an evaluation of changes in the ecological character of the site, twenty years after designation. Samples were taken from two protected areas within the Ramsar site, in the wet (July), dry (January), and intermediate (June) seasons. Community diversity was characterized in terms of number of species accumulated, species richness, Shannon-Weiner indices of diversity, Pielou’s evenness, and Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 134 families from 19 insect orders were recorded during the entire study period. Yenku Block A recorded the highest species richness (98) and the highest diversity index (14.97), corroborated by the highest Margalef index of 3.82 with a relatively even distribution of species (0.834) during the intermediate season, and recorded the lowest diversity (6.957) and species richness (41) during the dry season. On the whole, the Muni-Pomadzi Ramsar site showed a high diversity of insect species. The presence of species such as Junonia oenone and Papilio demodocus which are specialized in degraded habitats at Yenku Block A in large numbers is a clear indication of degradation of the forest, but the presence of forest species such as Salamis anacardii and Euphaedra crokeri is an indication that some parts of this reserve are still in good shape. A comparison of the butterfly species recorded with findings in a 1997 survey showed a marked increase in numbers from 75 to 130; this may be attributed to the habitat changes that have taken place at the site offering more diverse habitat types. Rosina Kyerematen, Daniel Acquah-Lamptey, Erasmus Henaku Owusu, Roger Sigismund Anderson, and Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu Copyright © 2014 Rosina Kyerematen et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Dengue Vectors during Pre- and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Higher Attitudes of Nilgiri Hills of Western Ghats, India Tue, 17 Dec 2013 11:33:39 +0000 Entomological survey was carried out to record dengue vectors during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2012 from different breeding places in residential and forested areas of different altitudes of the Nilgiris, namely, Mettupalayam (330 mts), Kallar (400 mts), Burliar (900 mts), Marapalam (1050 mts), and Coonoor (1800 mts). Results showed that maximum number of dengue vector breeding was recorded at Mettupalayam during pre-monsoon season followed by Kallar, Burliar, Coonoor, and Marapalam. The post-monsoon season survey also revealed that the maximum number of dengue vector breeding was found at Mettupalayam, followed by Burliar, Coonoor, and Kallar, and Aedes immature was not found in Marapalam. Ae. aegypti species was recorded in all the study areas during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Whereas Ae. albopictus was recorded only at Mettupalayam, Kallar, and Burliar during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Besides these two dengue vectors, a nonvector species Ae. vittatus () was also recorded at Kallar and Burliar. R. Ravikumar, A. Daniel Reegan, P. Chandrasekar, and C. Senthil Kumar Copyright © 2013 R. Ravikumar et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Cues for Malaria Vectors Oviposition Site Selection: Challenges and Opportunities Sat, 30 Nov 2013 12:14:29 +0000 The attractiveness of oviposition site for malaria vector mosquitoes is dependent upon a number of physical and chemical factors. Many aspects of mosquito behavior, including host location and oviposition, are mediated by volatile semiochemicals. It is anticipated that selection of oviposition site by semio-chemicals in the form of attractants or stimulants can be used in oviposition traps to monitor or possibly in combination with insecticides to control gravid mosquito populations for mass trapping. So far, volatile compounds identified as oviposition attractants for mosquitoes include phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, indole, skatole, and p-cresol from hay infusions; 3-carene, α-terpinene, α-copaene, α-cedrene, and d-cadinene released by copepods; alcohol and terpenoids including p-cresol from plants; ethyl acetate and hydrocarbon substances, probably released by filamentous algae; 3-methyl-1-butanol identified from bacteria. Research priorities should be directed at identifying more oviposition attractants to determine the properties of these semio-chemicals for possible use in designing control tools. This would aim at luring females to lethal traps or stimulants to increase their exposure to insecticide-impregnated substrates. Yousif E. Himeidan, Emmanuel A. Temu, El Amin El Rayah, Stephen Munga, and Eliningaya J. Kweka Copyright © 2013 Yousif E. Himeidan et al. All rights reserved. Observations of Resource Use by the Threatened Diana Fritillary Butterfly (Speyeria diana) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA Mon, 23 Sep 2013 13:40:49 +0000 We present four summers (2006–2009) of field observations of the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Cramer, 1777), throughout the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, in the eastern portion of its distribution. We describe our observations of resource use by S. diana in sites located in Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Butterflies imbibed nectar from five genera (>11 species) of flowering plants and also imbibed liquid from dirt roads and horse manure. The majority of butterflies (57%) were observed feeding on milkweed, Asclepias spp., a high-quality nectar-producing plant which is known to be an important resource for many Lepidoptera. We documented 14 species of Viola spp., the larval host plant used by Speyeria, in our survey sites. All butterflies were marked to observe their movement. Recapture rates ranged from 17% to 56%, suggesting that dispersal of S. diana out of suitable habitat was somewhat limited. Carrie N. Wells and Eric A. Smith Copyright © 2013 Carrie N. Wells and Eric A. Smith. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Dipteran Species Diversity and Their Succession on Rabbit Carrion in Two Different Mangrove Areas of Peninsular Malaysia Wed, 21 Aug 2013 11:18:57 +0000 A study on dipteran utility in assisting investigation of unattended deaths was carried out in mangrove areas of Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, and Masai, Johor, in Peninsular Malaysia by using rabbit carrions as the model. The aim of this study was to determine the dipteran species diversity and their succession over the decomposition period of the rabbit carrions. A total of 229 individuals belonging to 11 species from six families of Diptera were successfully identified from both study sites in October and December 2007. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Hydrotaea sp. were found to be the most abundant species recorded in this study. More species were collected from Masai with 10 species compared to Kuala Terengganu with nine species. Ecological indices (Shannon Wiener Index, Margalef Index, and Evenness Index) showed that Masai scored higher diversity, richness, and evenness values than Kuala Terengganu. However, Mann-Whitney test did not show significant difference among the individuals represented at each study site (). Calliphoridae predominated in the carrion during the fresh, bloat, and active decay stages of decomposition. Dipteran development was documented to be meteorologically dependent whereby; low temperature and high rainfall inhibit their colonization. Data collected in this study can hopefully serve as the basis for future estimates of the postmortem interval (PMI) particularly in mangrove area of tropical regions. Wahizatul Afzan Azmi and S. P. Lim Copyright © 2013 Wahizatul Afzan Azmi and S. P. Lim. All rights reserved. Butterfly Assemblages Associated with Invasive Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Sites: Comparisons with Tamarisk Control and Native Vegetation Reference Sites Mon, 19 Aug 2013 11:22:44 +0000 We studied butterfly assemblages at six types of riparian landscapes in five different watersheds in the southwestern United States ( sites). Sites included exotic-invasive Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk) dominated sites; sites where tamarisk was controlled, but not actively revegetated; sites revegetated with upland plants; sites where control was followed with riparian plant revegetation; native riparian vegetation sites; and sites that were a mixture of native and tamarisk vegetations. Local butterfly species were linked regionally by identifying species consisting of more sensitive butterflies that are less resilient to vegetation changes and environmental perturbations and then identifying a subgroup that was reported from all watersheds. This allowed for a regional assessment relevant to all watersheds. Significant differences were found between the abundance of these in-common disturbance sensitive species at different landscapes. Sites where tamarisk was removed without restoration had butterfly metrics similar to the low values at tamarisk sites. The assumption that tamarisk removal is sufficient to recover sensitive species was not true in cases we examined. Soil moisture and riparian condition were identified as important variables associated with abundance of more sensitive butterfly species. Results support the importance of reinstating stream-flow regimes and suggest active restoration of sites if sensitive riparian wildlife species are desired. S. Mark Nelson and Rick Wydoski Copyright © 2013 S. Mark Nelson and Rick Wydoski. All rights reserved. Nesting Biology of Odynerus albopictus calcaratus (Morawitz, 1885) and Odynerus femoratus de Saussure, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) Wed, 17 Jul 2013 10:35:43 +0000 The nesting biology of Odynerus albopictus calcaratus and Odynerus femoratus was studied in the Crimea (south of Ukraine); 46 nests of O. a. calcaratus and 18 nests of O. femoratus were examined. Both species nest on horizontal ground surfaces. The nests are vertical burrows surmounted by turrets. Females use water during nest construction and retrieve mud pellets from the nest burrow; these pellets are of two distinct sizes: small ones are used for the turret construction and big ones are dropped away. Females hunt for larvae of curculionid beetles of the genus Hypera. Completed nests are sealed with demolished turrets and nest burrows are usually entirely filled with mud. The nests of O. a. calcaratus contain 1-2 cells; the nests of O. femoratus contain 1–10 cells. The turrets of O. a. calcaratus are curved, and opened sideward; the turrets of O. femoratus are straight, and opened upward. The nesting success is 83% in O. a. calcaratus and 55% in O. femoratus. Most of the wasps died due to abiotic factors (e.g., rain). The nest structures of the species in the genus Odynerus studied so far are compared, and the function of the nest turret is discussed. Alexander V. Fateryga Copyright © 2013 Alexander V. Fateryga. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Relationship of the Longhorn Grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Northwest Tanzania Based on 18S Ribosomal Nuclear Sequences Tue, 21 May 2013 09:32:22 +0000 Previously, the biology of the longhorn grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from northwest Tanzania was mainly inferred based on the morphological and behavioural characters with which its taxonomic status was delineated. The present study complements the previous analysis by examining the phylogenetic relationship of this insect based on the nuclear ribosomal molecular evidence. In the approach, the 18S rDNA of this insect was extracted, amplified, sequenced, and aligned, and the resultant data were used to reconstruct and analyze the phylogeny of this insect based on the catalogued data. Nicodemus D. Matojo and Keneth M. Hosea Copyright © 2013 Nicodemus D. Matojo and Keneth M. Hosea. All rights reserved.