Journal of Insects The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Oviposition and Development in Gregopimpla kuwanae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a Gregarious Ectoparasitoid Wasp Attacking the Rice Skipper Parnara guttata Wed, 02 Mar 2016 13:32:03 +0000 Gregopimpla kuwanae is a gregarious ectoparasitoid wasp attacking mature larvae and prepupae of the rice skipper Parnara guttata (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a major herbivorous pest in rice paddies. Here, the biology of G. kuwanae was investigated using Galleria mellonella as a laboratory host. Adult females accepted G. mellonella cocoons for oviposition, and larvae of G. kuwanae developed successfully to adulthood on this host. Females laid, on average, 3.5 eggs per host. Time required for oviposition was relatively long (mean = 14.2 min). Survival of parasitoid offspring decreased with the increasing number of eggs on each host. Females used 18.9% of hosts for host feeding, killing the hosts with no exception. Oviposition did not occur on hosts used for feeding purpose, indicating that the parasitoid was a nonconcurrent, destructive host feeder. Newly emerging adult females carried no eggs in the ovary; females started oogenesis only after they had destructively fed on hosts. This parasitoid thus was extremely synovigenic (ovigeny index = 0). Gregopimpla kuwanae laid typically yolk-rich, anhydropic eggs. Females carried on average 15 mature eggs with 20 immature eggs, and larger females had a greater number of eggs in the ovary. Life history characteristics of G. kuwanae were discussed. Takatoshi Ueno Copyright © 2016 Takatoshi Ueno. All rights reserved. Infestation of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore on Thirteen Eucalyptus Species and Their Relationship with the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Tue, 02 Feb 2016 13:53:21 +0000 Glycaspis brimblecombei is a pest insect that affects Eucalyptus genus and was firstly detected in Argentina in 2005. The main objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the level of infestation and chemical composition of essential oils extract. In an experimental plantation of 13 Eucalyptus species, the natural presence of the psyllid in the adaxial and abaxial faces of the leaves was determined and the mean number of individuals per species was calculated. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that 7 out of 13 species of Eucalyptus were not affected by G. brimblecombei: E. dunnii, E. globulus maidenii, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. viminalis, E. cinerea, E. sideroxylon, and E. gunnii. The most affected Eucalyptus species were E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis whereas the infestation in E. grandis E. tereticornis and E. grandis E. camaldulensis was intermediate. E. saligna and E. grandis were the least affected species. The relative concentrations of the compounds 1,8-cineole and α- and β-phellandrene in the essential oils are highly correlated to the rate of infestation with G. brimblecombei. Alejandro Lucia, Cecilia Naspi, Eduardo Zerba, and Héctor Masuh Copyright © 2016 Alejandro Lucia et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Linkage Studies of New Autosomal Sex-Limited Mutant Hairless Antenna in Anopheles stephensi Liston Mon, 04 Jan 2016 07:27:01 +0000 A new morphological mutant hairless antenna (hla) was induced in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi by γ-irradiation. The expression of the mutant in the male adult revealed the antennae without the hairs. The inheritance pattern from our data demonstrates that hairless antenna is essentially sex-limited to males and is autosomal and recessive. The linkage relationships studies between the hairless antenna and greyish brown larva (grb) mutant indicated independent assortment and are present on different chromosomes, while the linkage relationship studies between the hairless antenna and ruby eye (ru) mutant revealed the suppression of hla by the ru gene in heterozygous condition. These mutants can be useful in conducting basic and applied research such as construction of linkage maps and understanding biochemical pathways and in genetic control programmes. A. Dinesh Madhyastha and N. J. Shetty Copyright © 2016 A. Dinesh Madhyastha and N. J. Shetty. All rights reserved. Habitats and Foraging Movements of Larvae of Molanna uniophila Vorhies (Trichoptera: Molannidae) in Pratt Lake, Michigan, USA Thu, 31 Dec 2015 16:55:20 +0000 Habitats and foraging movements of larvae of Molanna uniophila Vorhies (Trichoptera: Molannidae) were studied during four summers in Pratt Lake, Michigan. Larvae lived and fed in shallow (<10 cm), sand-bottomed lake margins, where macrophyte densities ranged from 86 to 452 stems/m2. Average densities of larvae varied fivefold between years (2.7 versus 13.6 individuals/m2), but larval densities did not vary significantly between habitat patches with low (120 stems/m2) and high (360 stems/m2) macrophyte densities. Larvae and their cases exhibited strong patterns of simple, linear growth. Diets of larvae were dominated by amorphous detritus, plant debris, diatoms, and filamentous algae, but midges, cladocerans, and other microscopic aquatic animals also were consumed. Larvae shifted their bodies and cases forward across the surface sediments up to 4 times/minute while foraging, moving as much as 2.5 m/hour. Movements and distances traveled while feeding increased significantly with increased water temperatures, peaking during midafternoon hours. Distances moved by feeding larvae did not differ between habitats with low versus high macrophyte densities. Larvae foraged most actively during daylight hours and did not selectively utilize macrophyte beds as partial refugia from potential predators while feeding. Neal D. Mundahl and Erik D. Mundahl Copyright © 2015 Neal D. Mundahl and Erik D. Mundahl. All rights reserved. Short-Term Dynamics Reveals Seasonality in a Subtropical Heliconius Butterfly Sun, 29 Nov 2015 13:43:09 +0000 Although tropical insect populations are generally regarded as constant and stable over time, some of these tropical populations, including butterflies, may fluctuate according to precipitation and temperature variation, specialized feeding patterns, and density-dependent factors. Heliconiini butterfly populations are generally regarded as stable over time because of the presence of host-plants and absence of diapause. However, peaks of abundance occur in subtropical Heliconius populations, and opposite trends concerning stability are found in the literature. Here we further investigate the dynamics of subtropical Heliconius butterflies by assessing a population of the species Heliconius sara apseudes from southeastern Brazil. We estimated individual apparent survival probability and population growth rate while accounting for the imperfect detectability of individuals using mark-recapture models to evaluate the population dynamics. Adult males presented slightly higher weekly survival estimates than females. Contrary to the common pattern described in the literature for Heliconius populations we observed a rapid decline on the adult population by the end of the mating season, possibly leading to local extinction. We discuss the potential drivers for such dynamics. Thadeu Sobral-Souza, Ronaldo Bastos Francini, Murilo Guimarães, and Woodruff Withman Benson Copyright © 2015 Thadeu Sobral-Souza et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus): Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear? Mon, 26 Oct 2015 11:53:29 +0000 Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus), which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch specimens from a project where monarchs were reared under uniform conditions. We weighed individual body parts, including the thorax (flight muscle) and wings, and computed wing loading and wing thickness for all specimens. When we compared each morphological trait between sexes, we found that females did not differ from males in terms of relative thorax (wing muscle) size. Females were generally smaller than males, but females had relatively thicker wings than males for their size, which suggests greater mechanical strength. Importantly, females had significantly lower wing loading than males (7% lower). This would translate to more efficient flight, which may explain their higher migratory success. Results of this work should be useful for interpreting flight behavior and/or migration success in this and other Lepidopteran species. Andrew K. Davis and Michael T. Holden Copyright © 2015 Andrew K. Davis and Michael T. Holden. All rights reserved. Life History of the Tamarind Weevil, Sitophilus linearis (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Tamarind Seed Mon, 19 Oct 2015 11:04:55 +0000 The tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of tamarind and other Caesalpinioideae. Investigating its life history is important in the implementation of management strategy. Its life history was monitored daily to understand its developmental biology on tamarind seed following standard procedures under laboratory conditions of 24–30°C temperature, 60–70% relative humidity, and 12L : 12D photoperiod. The egg incubation period lasted 3.17 ± 0.07 days. A mated female of S. linearis laid an average of 165 ± 5.78 eggs during an oviposition period of 86.8 ± 2.47 days. There were four larval instars, with a total larval developmental period of 16 days. The pupal period lasted 8 days, and adult lived 108.5 ± 3.61 days. The overall growth ratio for the four instars was 1.33. There was a regular relationship and significant correlation () between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. James Adebayo Ojo and Adebayo Amos Omoloye Copyright © 2015 James Adebayo Ojo and Adebayo Amos Omoloye. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal and Repellent Effect of Essential Oils of Two Premna Species against Sitotroga cerealella Mon, 27 Jul 2015 08:20:30 +0000 This work aims to study for the first time the chemical composition and evaluate insecticidal and repellent effects of essential oils of Premna angolensis and Premna quadrifolia leaves, against Sitotroga cerealella, an insect pest of rice stocks as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The GC-MS analysis showed that essential oil of P. angolensis contains 29 compounds representing 96.1% of the oil and 42 compounds corresponding to 91% for the essential oil of P. quadrifolia. The main constituents regardless of the species were β-caryophyllene (13.1%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (13.5%), octen-3-ol (3.2%–28%), phytol (3.7%–4.9%), β-elemene (1.4%–21%), globulol (11.2%), germacrene-D (8.9%), α-humulene (2.9%–6.4%), α-pinene (5%), sabinene (3.7%), δ-cadinene (0.4%–3.3%), and linalool (3.3%). The results of laboratory tests showed that both essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects on S. cerealella. Presenting the results, the damage caused by the adults and larvae of S. cerealella was evaluated by calculating the percentage of grains attacked and weight loss thereof. The results suggest that volatile extracts of P. angolensis and P. quadrifolia can be used as alternatives to synthetic chemicals in paddy protection against S. cerealella. Elvis Adjalian, Philippe Sessou, Théophile Odjo, Gilles Figueredo, Dansou Kossou, Félicien Avlessi, Chantal Menut, and Dominique Sohounhloué Copyright © 2015 Elvis Adjalian et al. All rights reserved. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Mon, 02 Feb 2015 13:52:12 +0000 Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized. Augustin Koudamiloro, Francis Eegbara Nwilene, Abou Togola, and Martin Akogbeto Copyright © 2015 Augustin Koudamiloro et al. All rights reserved. Phenology of Migration and Decline in Colony Numbers and Crop Hosts of Giant Honeybee (Apis dorsata F.) in Semiarid Environment of Northwest India Tue, 02 Dec 2014 07:50:17 +0000 The colonies of the giant honeybee (Apis dorsata) immigrate in the semiarid environment of Northwest India in October-November with the onset of flowering on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)/toria (Brassica campestris var. toria), stay here during the rich pollen and nectar flow period from December to mid-May, and emigrate in late May/early June when floral dearth is witnessed. This honeybee was free from any conspicuous viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases and also did not have any serious predators and enemies. However, about 20 percent of the old colonies were infested with Tropilaelaps clareae and 100 percent of the old colonies with Galleria mellonella; none of the swarm colonies had these pests. While the migration schedule of this honeybee remained similar year after year, the number of colonies immigrating in this region declined markedly over the years; the number in 2012 was even less than half of that recorded in 1984. During its stay in this region, this honeybee acted as an important pollinator of more than 30 crop plants of this region. The causes of seasonal migration and decline in the number of colonies of this honeybee and its importance in crop pollination have been discussed. Ram Chander Sihag Copyright © 2014 Ram Chander Sihag. All rights reserved. Butterfly Diversity of Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Tue, 25 Nov 2014 17:20:57 +0000 A study to find out the diversity of butterflies at the Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM), Bhopal, was carried out over a period of six months from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 55 butterfly species belonging to 5 families, namely, Hesperiidae (7 species), Papilionidae (4 species), Pieridae (10 species), Lycaenidae (13 species), and Nymphalidae (21 species), were recorded (with photographic record) during the study from three different habitats of campus: open scrub, dry deciduous, and urbanized habitat. Shannon diversity indices and Pielou’s evenness index were calculated for all the habitats. Shannon index was found to be highest for open scrub (3.76). Out of 54 species, Eurema brigitta was the most dominant species followed by Eurema hecabe, Junonia lemonias, and Phalanta phalantha. Dominance of these species can be explained by the presence of their larval and host plants in the campus. Sprih Harsh Copyright © 2014 Sprih Harsh. All rights reserved. Development of a Portable Electronic Nose for Detection of Cotton Damaged by Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Tue, 11 Nov 2014 09:27:32 +0000 Stink bugs are significant pests of cotton in the southeastern USA, causing millions of dollars in control costs and crop losses each year. New methods to detect stink bug damage must be investigated in order to reduce these costs and optimize pesticide applications. One such method would be to detect the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from cotton plants damaged by stink bugs. A portable device was developed to draw VOCs from the head space of a cotton boll over carbon black-polymer composite sensors. From the response of these sensors, this device would indicate if the boll was fed upon by a stink bug or not. The device was 100% accurate in distinguishing bolls damaged by stink bugs from undamaged controls when tested under training conditions. However, the device was only 57.1% accurate in distinguishing damaged from undamaged bolls when tested 24 h after it was trained. These results indicated that this device was capable of classifying cotton as damaged or undamaged by differentiating VOCs released from undamaged or damaged bolls, but improvements in design are required to address sensitivity to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Brittany D. Lampson, Ahmad Khalilian, Jeremy K. Greene, Young J. Han, and David C. Degenhardt Copyright © 2014 Brittany D. Lampson et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Aedes aegypti Pupal Productivity during the Dengue Vector Control Program in a Costal Urban Centre of São Paulo State, Brazil Mon, 03 Nov 2014 06:41:43 +0000 The control of dengue relies on the elimination of vector breeding sites. This study identified the container categories most productive for A. aegypti within the framework of the São Paulo dengue vector control program (DVCP) in São Sebastião, a large city located on the state’s coast where dengue cases have occurred since 2001. Containers were inspected monthly for the occurrence of mosquito immature stages during two consecutive vector-breeding seasons in 2002–2004. Containers were classified by their material, use, and fixed or removable status. Pupal productivity differed significantly among container types, items made of metal and plastic, and boats being those with the highest relative contribution. Significant correlations between traditional indices of A. aegypti abundance (Container Index, House Index, and Breteau Index) and pupal productivity/demographic indices (Pupae/Container, Pupae/House, Pupae/ha, and Pupae/Person) ranged 0.56–0.65; correlations were not statistically significant for any combination involving the Pupae/Container index. The assessment of pupal productivity indices could be incorporated into the DVCP without any additional operational onus, allowing vector control managers to determine appropriate control actions targeting the most productive containers and sites. Further studies are needed to assess whether pupal productivity indices may be used as epidemiological indicators of risk of dengue transmission. Marylene de Brito Arduino Copyright © 2014 Marylene de Brito Arduino. All rights reserved. Relative Toxicity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:17:16 +0000 The larvicidal activity of different solvent leaf extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and methanol) of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against two geographically different strains of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was investigated. The extracts were tested against the late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, and larval mortality was observed after 24 hours of treatment. LC50 and LC90 were calculated. The LC50 values of hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus against the late third instar larvae of the BSN and JPN strains of Aedes aegypti and the DLC and KNG strains of Anopheles stephensi were 225.2, 167.7, 118.8, and 192.8 ppm, while those of the hexane extract of Centella asiatica were 246.5, 268.7, 50.6, and 243.5 ppm, respectively. The LC50 values of diethyl ether extract of Centella asiatica were 339.6, 134.5, 241, and 14.7 ppm. The hexane extracts of both plants and the diethyl ether extract of C. asiatica presented the highest potential for the control of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The present findings also reveal the necessity of assaying multiple strains of a species to fully comprehend the larvicidal efficacy of a compound. Savitha Sekhar Nair, Vinaya Shetty, and Nadikere Jaya Shetty Copyright © 2014 Savitha Sekhar Nair et al. All rights reserved. Fumigation Toxicity of Essential Oil Monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) Tue, 07 Oct 2014 10:20:05 +0000 The fumigant toxicity of eight essential oil components, 1-8-cineole, carvacrol, eugenol, (−)-menthone, (−)-linalool, S-(−)-limonene, (−)-β-pinene, and (+)-α-pinene, was tested against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), at 0.25–60 µL/L air doses. 1-8-Cineole, carvacrol, and eugenol caused complete adult mortality at 10 µL/L air 24 h after treatment. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol were the most toxic with LD50 values of 0.24 and 0.6 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. (−)-β-Pinene and (+)-α-pinene were the least toxic with LD50 values of 31 and 31.4 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. Toxicity was negatively correlated with vapor pressure. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol caused 100% oviposition deterrence at all doses tested. Eugenol and (−)-menthone completely inhibited adult emergence. S-(−)-Limonene, (−)-β-pinene, and (+)-α-pinene were not effective at preventing oviposition or adult emergence, suggesting that a lethal dose of the three oil components would be necessary to control C. maculatus infestations. Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi, Arthur G. Appel, and Henry Y. Fadamiro Copyright © 2014 Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi et al. All rights reserved. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic Tue, 02 Sep 2014 13:17:22 +0000 This study examined ant species richness in Jaragua National Park (Pedernales Province, Dominican Republic). Ants were sampled at 15 sites during late March and early April, 2012. Habitats sampled included dry forest, beach scrub, lakeside acacia scrub, and thorn woodland. Sixty-four species from 23 genera were collected. Species richness was higher than expected, considering only 125 species had previously been reported for all of Hispaniola. Jaragua National Park is part of the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. The ant species richness observed in this study suggests that the park, along with larger reserve, is successful in preserving important habitat for insects. David Lubertazzi and Gary D. Alpert Copyright © 2014 David Lubertazzi and Gary D. Alpert. All rights reserved. Laboratory Evaluation of Oviposition Behavior of Field Collected Aedes Mosquitoes Tue, 01 Jul 2014 06:42:19 +0000 Wild female Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were allowed to lay eggs in (i) ovitraps with different concentrations of NaCl, (ii) different coloured ovistrips, (iii) water from different sources, (iv) larva holding water, and different sized ovitraps for oviposition preference. Oviposition cycle was also studied in different photoperiod regimens. The number of eggs laid was observed to gradually decrease with increase in NaCl concentration in both the species. Experiments were conducted to determine egg laying preference for any specific colour of the ovistrip and black ovistrip was found to be most preferred by both the species. For oviposition preference, eight water samples collected from different sources were used and it was observed that the maximum number of eggs was laid in ovitraps containing distilled water followed by tap water. In addition, Aedes mosquitoes laid more number of eggs in ovitraps containing larval holding water than ovitraps containing distilled water. Further, both the species did not lay any egg in the smallest used ovitrap although the number of eggs was maximally deposited in the largest ovitrap used. In the present studies, both the Aedes species laid the maximum number of eggs in the 4th quarter of the light period with normal 12 h light and dark phases (LD 12 : 12). Subrat K. Panigrahi, Tapan K. Barik, Satyabrata Mohanty, and Niraj Kanti Tripathy Copyright © 2014 Subrat K. Panigrahi et al. All rights reserved. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti (L.) Mosquitoes in Mumbai International Seaport (India) to Monitor Potential Global Health Risks Sun, 29 Jun 2014 08:20:27 +0000 Aedes mosquitoes are highly invasive and can survive almost any climatic conditions. They transmit a number of major world's deadly diseases. Therefore, a study was undertaken during December 2010 to evaluate the entomo-epidemiological risk of Aedes mosquito borne diseases (VBD) in Mumbai international seaport areas to minimize potential global health risks and prevent introduction of new VBD in India. Surveys were undertaken in operational and residential areas of Mumbai Port Trust (MPT). All the entomological indices were found to be above the critical level, prescribed for seaports by International Health Regulations Act, 2005. The operational areas where large goods are handled from cargo ships were found to be more prone to mosquito breeding comparing to residential areas. High insecticide tolerance of Aedes aegypti population against temephos and fenthion from Mumbai port area is reported for the first time. A careful and regular invigilation of the international seaports to prevent building up of vector density of dengue/chikungunya and yellow fever is recommended. Kaushal Kumar, Abhay Kumar Sharma, Manas Sarkar, Arun Chauhan, and Rajeev Sharma Copyright © 2014 Kaushal Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Selection of Oviposition Sites by Libelloides coccajus (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae), North of the Alps: Implications for Nature Conservation Thu, 27 Mar 2014 08:24:38 +0000 (1) The survival of peripheral populations is often threatened, especially in a changing environment. Furthermore, such populations frequently show adaptations to local conditions which, in turn, may enhance the ability of a species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In conservation biology, peripheral populations are therefore of particular interest. (2) In northern Switzerland and southern Germany, Libelloides coccajus is an example of such a peripheral species. (3) Assuming that suitable oviposition sites are crucial to its long-term survival, we compared oviposition sites and adjacent control plots with regard to structure and composition of the vegetation. (4) Vegetation structure at and around oviposition sites seems to follow fairly stringent rules leading to at least two benefits for the egg clutches: (i) reduced risk of contact with adjacent plants, avoiding delayed drying after rainfall or morning dew and (ii) reduced shading and therefore higher temperatures. (5) Furthermore, the study showed that it is possible to successfully create secondary habitats for L. coccajus, as shown by a road verge in one of our study areas. It is likely that other artificial habitats such as abandoned gravel pits and quarries may also provide suitable habitats. Markus Müller, Jürg Schlegel, and Bertil O. Krüsi Copyright © 2014 Markus Müller et al. All rights reserved. Insect Diversity of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site: An Important Site for Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana Thu, 20 Feb 2014 13:36:43 +0000 An inventory of species diversity of insects of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site, with special reference to species of conservation concern, was carried out as part of an evaluation of changes in the ecological character of the site, twenty years after designation. Samples were taken from two protected areas within the Ramsar site, in the wet (July), dry (January), and intermediate (June) seasons. Community diversity was characterized in terms of number of species accumulated, species richness, Shannon-Weiner indices of diversity, Pielou’s evenness, and Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 134 families from 19 insect orders were recorded during the entire study period. Yenku Block A recorded the highest species richness (98) and the highest diversity index (14.97), corroborated by the highest Margalef index of 3.82 with a relatively even distribution of species (0.834) during the intermediate season, and recorded the lowest diversity (6.957) and species richness (41) during the dry season. On the whole, the Muni-Pomadzi Ramsar site showed a high diversity of insect species. The presence of species such as Junonia oenone and Papilio demodocus which are specialized in degraded habitats at Yenku Block A in large numbers is a clear indication of degradation of the forest, but the presence of forest species such as Salamis anacardii and Euphaedra crokeri is an indication that some parts of this reserve are still in good shape. A comparison of the butterfly species recorded with findings in a 1997 survey showed a marked increase in numbers from 75 to 130; this may be attributed to the habitat changes that have taken place at the site offering more diverse habitat types. Rosina Kyerematen, Daniel Acquah-Lamptey, Erasmus Henaku Owusu, Roger Sigismund Anderson, and Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu Copyright © 2014 Rosina Kyerematen et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Dengue Vectors during Pre- and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Higher Attitudes of Nilgiri Hills of Western Ghats, India Tue, 17 Dec 2013 11:33:39 +0000 Entomological survey was carried out to record dengue vectors during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2012 from different breeding places in residential and forested areas of different altitudes of the Nilgiris, namely, Mettupalayam (330 mts), Kallar (400 mts), Burliar (900 mts), Marapalam (1050 mts), and Coonoor (1800 mts). Results showed that maximum number of dengue vector breeding was recorded at Mettupalayam during pre-monsoon season followed by Kallar, Burliar, Coonoor, and Marapalam. The post-monsoon season survey also revealed that the maximum number of dengue vector breeding was found at Mettupalayam, followed by Burliar, Coonoor, and Kallar, and Aedes immature was not found in Marapalam. Ae. aegypti species was recorded in all the study areas during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Whereas Ae. albopictus was recorded only at Mettupalayam, Kallar, and Burliar during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Besides these two dengue vectors, a nonvector species Ae. vittatus () was also recorded at Kallar and Burliar. R. Ravikumar, A. Daniel Reegan, P. Chandrasekar, and C. Senthil Kumar Copyright © 2013 R. Ravikumar et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Cues for Malaria Vectors Oviposition Site Selection: Challenges and Opportunities Sat, 30 Nov 2013 12:14:29 +0000 The attractiveness of oviposition site for malaria vector mosquitoes is dependent upon a number of physical and chemical factors. Many aspects of mosquito behavior, including host location and oviposition, are mediated by volatile semiochemicals. It is anticipated that selection of oviposition site by semio-chemicals in the form of attractants or stimulants can be used in oviposition traps to monitor or possibly in combination with insecticides to control gravid mosquito populations for mass trapping. So far, volatile compounds identified as oviposition attractants for mosquitoes include phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, indole, skatole, and p-cresol from hay infusions; 3-carene, α-terpinene, α-copaene, α-cedrene, and d-cadinene released by copepods; alcohol and terpenoids including p-cresol from plants; ethyl acetate and hydrocarbon substances, probably released by filamentous algae; 3-methyl-1-butanol identified from bacteria. Research priorities should be directed at identifying more oviposition attractants to determine the properties of these semio-chemicals for possible use in designing control tools. This would aim at luring females to lethal traps or stimulants to increase their exposure to insecticide-impregnated substrates. Yousif E. Himeidan, Emmanuel A. Temu, El Amin El Rayah, Stephen Munga, and Eliningaya J. Kweka Copyright © 2013 Yousif E. Himeidan et al. All rights reserved. Observations of Resource Use by the Threatened Diana Fritillary Butterfly (Speyeria diana) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA Mon, 23 Sep 2013 13:40:49 +0000 We present four summers (2006–2009) of field observations of the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Cramer, 1777), throughout the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, in the eastern portion of its distribution. We describe our observations of resource use by S. diana in sites located in Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Butterflies imbibed nectar from five genera (>11 species) of flowering plants and also imbibed liquid from dirt roads and horse manure. The majority of butterflies (57%) were observed feeding on milkweed, Asclepias spp., a high-quality nectar-producing plant which is known to be an important resource for many Lepidoptera. We documented 14 species of Viola spp., the larval host plant used by Speyeria, in our survey sites. All butterflies were marked to observe their movement. Recapture rates ranged from 17% to 56%, suggesting that dispersal of S. diana out of suitable habitat was somewhat limited. Carrie N. Wells and Eric A. Smith Copyright © 2013 Carrie N. Wells and Eric A. Smith. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Dipteran Species Diversity and Their Succession on Rabbit Carrion in Two Different Mangrove Areas of Peninsular Malaysia Wed, 21 Aug 2013 11:18:57 +0000 A study on dipteran utility in assisting investigation of unattended deaths was carried out in mangrove areas of Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, and Masai, Johor, in Peninsular Malaysia by using rabbit carrions as the model. The aim of this study was to determine the dipteran species diversity and their succession over the decomposition period of the rabbit carrions. A total of 229 individuals belonging to 11 species from six families of Diptera were successfully identified from both study sites in October and December 2007. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Hydrotaea sp. were found to be the most abundant species recorded in this study. More species were collected from Masai with 10 species compared to Kuala Terengganu with nine species. Ecological indices (Shannon Wiener Index, Margalef Index, and Evenness Index) showed that Masai scored higher diversity, richness, and evenness values than Kuala Terengganu. However, Mann-Whitney test did not show significant difference among the individuals represented at each study site (). Calliphoridae predominated in the carrion during the fresh, bloat, and active decay stages of decomposition. Dipteran development was documented to be meteorologically dependent whereby; low temperature and high rainfall inhibit their colonization. Data collected in this study can hopefully serve as the basis for future estimates of the postmortem interval (PMI) particularly in mangrove area of tropical regions. Wahizatul Afzan Azmi and S. P. Lim Copyright © 2013 Wahizatul Afzan Azmi and S. P. Lim. All rights reserved. Butterfly Assemblages Associated with Invasive Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Sites: Comparisons with Tamarisk Control and Native Vegetation Reference Sites Mon, 19 Aug 2013 11:22:44 +0000 We studied butterfly assemblages at six types of riparian landscapes in five different watersheds in the southwestern United States ( sites). Sites included exotic-invasive Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk) dominated sites; sites where tamarisk was controlled, but not actively revegetated; sites revegetated with upland plants; sites where control was followed with riparian plant revegetation; native riparian vegetation sites; and sites that were a mixture of native and tamarisk vegetations. Local butterfly species were linked regionally by identifying species consisting of more sensitive butterflies that are less resilient to vegetation changes and environmental perturbations and then identifying a subgroup that was reported from all watersheds. This allowed for a regional assessment relevant to all watersheds. Significant differences were found between the abundance of these in-common disturbance sensitive species at different landscapes. Sites where tamarisk was removed without restoration had butterfly metrics similar to the low values at tamarisk sites. The assumption that tamarisk removal is sufficient to recover sensitive species was not true in cases we examined. Soil moisture and riparian condition were identified as important variables associated with abundance of more sensitive butterfly species. Results support the importance of reinstating stream-flow regimes and suggest active restoration of sites if sensitive riparian wildlife species are desired. S. Mark Nelson and Rick Wydoski Copyright © 2013 S. Mark Nelson and Rick Wydoski. All rights reserved. Nesting Biology of Odynerus albopictus calcaratus (Morawitz, 1885) and Odynerus femoratus de Saussure, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) Wed, 17 Jul 2013 10:35:43 +0000 The nesting biology of Odynerus albopictus calcaratus and Odynerus femoratus was studied in the Crimea (south of Ukraine); 46 nests of O. a. calcaratus and 18 nests of O. femoratus were examined. Both species nest on horizontal ground surfaces. The nests are vertical burrows surmounted by turrets. Females use water during nest construction and retrieve mud pellets from the nest burrow; these pellets are of two distinct sizes: small ones are used for the turret construction and big ones are dropped away. Females hunt for larvae of curculionid beetles of the genus Hypera. Completed nests are sealed with demolished turrets and nest burrows are usually entirely filled with mud. The nests of O. a. calcaratus contain 1-2 cells; the nests of O. femoratus contain 1–10 cells. The turrets of O. a. calcaratus are curved, and opened sideward; the turrets of O. femoratus are straight, and opened upward. The nesting success is 83% in O. a. calcaratus and 55% in O. femoratus. Most of the wasps died due to abiotic factors (e.g., rain). The nest structures of the species in the genus Odynerus studied so far are compared, and the function of the nest turret is discussed. Alexander V. Fateryga Copyright © 2013 Alexander V. Fateryga. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Relationship of the Longhorn Grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Northwest Tanzania Based on 18S Ribosomal Nuclear Sequences Tue, 21 May 2013 09:32:22 +0000 Previously, the biology of the longhorn grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from northwest Tanzania was mainly inferred based on the morphological and behavioural characters with which its taxonomic status was delineated. The present study complements the previous analysis by examining the phylogenetic relationship of this insect based on the nuclear ribosomal molecular evidence. In the approach, the 18S rDNA of this insect was extracted, amplified, sequenced, and aligned, and the resultant data were used to reconstruct and analyze the phylogeny of this insect based on the catalogued data. Nicodemus D. Matojo and Keneth M. Hosea Copyright © 2013 Nicodemus D. Matojo and Keneth M. Hosea. All rights reserved.