- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Influenza Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 206975, 7 pages
Experiences after Twenty Months with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection in the Naïve Norwegian Pig Population
1Department of Laboratory Services, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway
2Department of Health Surveillance, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway
3Department of Control, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Kyrkjevegen 332, 4325 Sandnes, Norway
4Norwegian Pig Health Service, Animalia, P.O. Box 396 Økern, 0513 Oslo, Norway
5Division of Infectious Disease Control, Department of Virology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway
Received 15 September 2011; Revised 21 November 2011; Accepted 18 December 2011
Academic Editor: Montserrat Torremorell
Copyright © 2011 B. Gjerset et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Van Reeth, I. H. Brown, R. Dürrwald et al., “Seroprevalence of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in seven European countries in 2002-2003,” Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 99–105, 2008.
- J. Maldonado, K. Van Reeth, P. Riera et al., “Evidence of the concurrent circulation of H1N2, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses in densely populated pig areas in Spain,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 377–381, 2006.
- I. H. Brown, “The epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses in pigs,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 29–46, 2000.
- R. J. Garten, C. T. Davis, C. A. Russell et al., “Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5937, pp. 197–201, 2009.
- J. Cohen, “Swine flu outbreak. New details on virus's promiscuous past,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5931, p. 1127, 2009.
- S. E. Forgie, J. Keenliside, C. Wilkinson et al., “Swine outbreak of pandemic influenza A virus on a canadian research farm supports human-to-swine transmission,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2011.
- A. Moreno, T. L. Di, L. Alborali , et al., “First pandemic H1N1 outbreak from a pig farm in Italy,” The Open Virology Journal, vol. 4, pp. 52–56, 2010.
- T. Pasma and T. Joseph, “Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection in swine herds, Manitoba, Canada,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 706–708, 2010.
- M. D. Welsh, P. M. Baird, M. P. Guelbenzu-Gonzalo et al., “Initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus into European pigs,” Veterinary Record, vol. 166, no. 21, pp. 642–645, 2010.
- M. Hofshagen, B. Gjerset, and C. Er, “Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v: human to pig transmission in Norway?” Euro Surveillance, vol. 14, no. 45, 2009.
- S. M. Brookes, A. Núñez, B. Choudhury et al., “Replication, pathogenesis and transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in non-immune pigs,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e9068, 2010.
- P. K. Holyoake, P. D. Kirkland, R. J. Davis et al., “The first identified case of pandemic H1N1 influenza in pigs in Australia,” Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 427–431, 2011.
- N. Busquets, J. Segalés, L. Córdoba et al., “Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus,” Veterinary Research, vol. 41, no. 5, article 74, 2010.
- E. Lange, D. Kalthoff, U. Blohm et al., “Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 2119–2123, 2009.
- A. L. Vincent, K. M. Lager, K. S. Faaberg et al., “Experimental inoculation of pigs with pandemic H1N1 2009 virus and HI cross-reactivity with contemporary swine influenza virus antisera,” Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 53–60, 2010.
- C. S. Kyriakis, C. W. Olsen, S. Carman et al., “Serologic cross-reactivity with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, Europe,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 96–99, 2010.
- B. Lium, A. Germundsson, C. Er, and P. Hopp, “The surveillance and control programme for specific virus infections in swine herds in Norway,” in Surveillance and control programmes for terrestrial and aquatic animals in Norway, annual report 2010, pp. 1–8, National Veterinary Institute, 2011.
- B. Lium, A. Jorgensen, and M. Gjestvang, “The Norwegian program for eradication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is successfully completed,” in Proceedings of the 21st IPVS Congress, p. 643, 2010.
- Office International des Epizooties, Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees), vol. 1, 6th edition, 2010.
- World Health Organization, The WHO Collaborating Centre for influenza at CDC Atlanta,United States of America. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for influenza A(H1N1), WHO, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2009, http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/CDCRealtimeRTPCR_SwineH1Assay-2009_20090430.pdf.
- Robert Koch-Institut, “TagMan real-time PCR zur Detektion von porcinen Influenza A/H1N1-Viren. Empfehlung für den Nachweis der porcinen Influenza A/H1N1-Viren mittels real-time PCR,” 2010, http://www.rki.de/cln_160/nn_200120/DE/Content/InfAZ/I/Influenza/IPV/Schweinegrippe__PCR.html.
- World Health Organization, The WHO Collaborating Centre for influenza at CDC Atlanta, United States of America. Sequencing primers and protocol, WHO, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2009, http://www.who.int/entity/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/GenomePrimers_20090512.pdf.
- T. A. Hall, “BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT,” pp. 95–98, 1999.
- K. Waalen, A. Kilander, S. G. Dudman, G. H. Krogh, T. Aune, and O. Hungnes, “High prevalence of antibodies to the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus in the Norwegian population following a major epidemic and a large vaccination campaign in autumn 2009,” Eurosurveillance, vol. 15, no. 31, 2010.
- R. Tellier, “Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus: a review of new studies,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. S783–S790, 2009.
- I. A. Gardner, P. Willeberg, and J. Mousing, “Empirical and theoretical evidence for herd size as a risk factor for swine diseases,” Animal Health Research Reviews, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 43–55, 2002.
- K. M. Grebe, J. W. Yewdell, and J. R. Bennink, “Heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus: where do we stand?” Microbes and Infection, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1024–1029, 2008.
- K. Van Reeth, V. Gregory, A. Hay, and M. Pensaert, “Protection against a European H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 13-14, pp. 1375–1381, 2003.
- C. S. Kyriakis, I. H. Brown, E. Foni et al., “Virological surveillance and preliminary antigenic characterization of influenza viruses in pigs in five European countries from 2006 to 2008,” Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 93–101, 2011.
- W. A. Howard, S. C. Essen, B. W. Strugnell et al., “Reassortant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, United Kingdom,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1049–1052, 2011.
- Y. Bi, G. Fu, J. Chen et al., “Novel swine influenza Virus reassortants in Pigs, China,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1162–1164, 2010.
- P. Kitikoon, D. Sreta, S. Nuntawan Na Ayudhya et al., “Brief report: molecular characterization of a novel reassorted pandemic H1N1 2009 in Thai pigs,” Virus Genes, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2011.
- D. Vijaykrishna, L. L. M. Poon, H. C. Zhu et al., “Reassortment of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza a virus in swine,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5985, p. 1529, 2010.