Table 1: Tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programming as a function of developmental stage.

Developmental stage Age-appropriate substantive contentsAge-appropriate process examplesExample programs

Young children (0–5 years old)Attachment enhancement, parenting skills, social and self-control skills, emotional learning, decision making, academic preparation, resource acquisition, maybe simple drug consequences factsUse of toys, nonverbal demonstration, recognition cards, extensive adult involvement, use of timeoutICPS, NFP, Fast Track, PATHS, HALO

Older children (6–11 years old)Social and self-control skills, decision making, emotional learning, academic skills and commitment to school, behavioral management, parenting skills, media awareness, drug consequences More verbal instruction, attribute-based similarity, rule posters and stickers, involvement with more adults outside the homeBrainTrain4Kids, PY/PM, Good Behavior Game, Caring School Community Program, KYB, KACM, CC/FSP, GGC, SSDP, LIFT, BBBSA, Smoke-free Kids

Young teens (12–15 years old)Drug prevalence overestimates reduction, normative restructuring, media literacy, refusal assertion, decision making, academic remediation, peer and family communication skills, public commitment, drug consequences Classroom discussion, classroom peer group interaction, class polls, behavioral rehearsal, role play, homework, games, letter writingLST, All Stars, Project ALERT, Lions Quest,Project TNT, SFP 10–14, Family Matters, CLFC

Older teens (16–17 years old)Motivation enhancement, stress-coping skills, self-control and communication skills, decision making and goal monitoring, vocational skills, resource acquisition, drug consequences, tobacco cessationTalk shows, classroom discussion, peer group interaction, class polls, behavioral rehearsal, games, personal journaling, counselingProject TND, RY, Project SUCCESS, ASPIRE

Adults: emerging adults (18–25 years old)Motivational interviewing/enhancement, coping strategies, problem solving, communication skills, drug consequences, “settling-down” materialMore personalized and private, assessment, personalized feedback, counselingBASICS, MyStudentBody

Adults: young-to middle age adults (26–50 years old)Coping skills, decision making, resource acquisition, grief work, motivational interviewing/enhancement, worksite-related issuesPersonalized and private assessment and feedback, material covering more health domains (e.g., diet)Healthy Workplace, CopingMatters

Adults: older adults (51 years old and older)Life perspectives, motivation enhancement, resource acquisition, coping skills, problem solving, social usefulness pursuits, medical supervision, multiple health domains, safe limits Personalized feedback, presentations, group discussion, practice in functional capacity maintenance, use of larger fontsAging to Perfection