ISRN Addiction The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Motherhood, Psychological Risks, and Resources in Relation to Alcohol Use Disorder: Are There Differences between Black and White Women? Tue, 22 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) are generally low among women who have ever had children (mothers) compared to women who have never had children (nonmothers), presenting a motherhood advantage. It is unclear if this advantage accrues to “Black” and “White” women alike. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 2 cross-sectional data that is rich in alcohol use and psychological measures, we examined the following: (a) if motherhood is protective for past-year AUD among Black () and White women (); (b) potential explanatory psychological mechanisms; and (c) the role of race. Prevalence of a past-year DSM-IV AUD was lower among White mothers compared to White nonmothers, but this same advantage was not observed for Black women. Perceived stress was a risk for all women, but race-ethnic segregated social networks and perceived discrimination predicted current AUD for Black mothers. Unlike White mothers, current psychological factors but not family history of alcohol problems predicted AUD for Black mothers. Future prospective studies should address the mechanisms by which race, motherhood, and psychological factors interactively affect AUD in women. Sundari Balan, Gregory Widner, Hsing-Jung Chen, Darrell Hudson, Sarah Gehlert, and Rumi Kato Price Copyright © 2014 Sundari Balan et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Substance Abuse Treatment and HIV Education on Safe Sex Practices in Cocaine Dependent Individuals Tue, 04 Mar 2014 07:01:45 +0000 Background. There is a strong association between crack/cocaine use and increased sexual risk behavior, but little research on the efficacy of HIV education for decreasing such behavior in crack/cocaine-addicted individuals in substance abuse treatment. Method. Datasets from two cocaine dependence trials including either one or three HIV education sessions, respectively, were analyzed for changes over time in the proportion of participants practicing safe sex. A pooled dataset from two earlier trials not offering HIV education was also analyzed. Results. We included 83 participants from the 1-session trial and 65 participants from the 3-session trial. Both sets of participants evidenced a significant increase in the proportion of participants having safe sex with casual partners. Participants in the 3-session HIV education study also evidenced a significant increase in the proportion of participants having safe sex with regular partners. In the trials without HIV education, no change in safe sex practices was found, and change in condom use was observed only among female participants. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with recommendations that HIV education/counseling should be provided to individuals in substance abuse treatment. A randomized controlled trial to confirm these results may be warranted. This trial is registered with NCT00033033, NCT00086255, NCT00015106, and NCT00015132. Theresa M. Winhusen, Eugene C. Somoza, Daniel F. Lewis, Frankie Kropp, Jeff Theobald, and Ahmed Elkashef Copyright © 2014 Theresa M. Winhusen et al. All rights reserved. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls Mon, 03 Mar 2014 12:44:29 +0000 Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author’s Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. K. L. Kumpfer Copyright © 2014 K. L. Kumpfer. All rights reserved. Adolescents Smoking in the Crosslight of Other Substance Use and Parental and Peers’ Smoking Behaviors Tue, 18 Feb 2014 11:59:34 +0000 This study investigates the connectedness of adolescents’ smoking status, history of alcohol and cannabis use, and parental and peers’ smoking, dimensions only rarely explored concurrently. Multinomial regression models that compared the smoking status of adolescents were estimated based on a representative sample of 3,560 adolescents aged 14–15 from Switzerland. While 49.0% of respondents had never smoked, 9.0% smoked on a daily basis and 12.0% occasionally; 32.6% had never drank alcohol and 74.7% had never used cannabis. Overall, parental and peers’ smoking and other substance use factors are significantly associated with smoking status. Yet, history of substance use revealed less consistent associations with smoking status among current smokers (daily versus occasional smoking). The findings highlight the connectedness of adolescents’ and other substance use behaviors and support the relevance of concurrent prevention initiatives targeting adolescents with specific substance use profiles and/or growing up in prosmoking social milieus. Hervé Kuendig and Marina Delgrande Jordan Copyright © 2014 Hervé Kuendig and Marina Delgrande Jordan. All rights reserved. Pharmacodynamics Must Inform Statistics: An Example from a Cocaine Dependence Pharmacotherapy Trial Wed, 05 Feb 2014 10:02:46 +0000 Background. There is no FDA-approved medication for cocaine dependence or consensus on the statistical approach for analyzing data from cocaine dependence pharmacotherapy trials. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the importance of understanding medication’s pharmacodynamics when specifying the statistical model to test its efficacy. Method. Data from a double-blind placebo controlled trial of reserpine for cocaine dependence are analyzed. Since the antihypertensive properties of reserpine are well established, blood pressure data are utilized to evaluate the ability of two statistical models, one that does not take the pharmacodynamics of reserpine into account and one that does, to detect reserpine’s antihypertensive effect. Results. The statistical model specified without regard to reserpine’s pharmacodynamics failed to find a significant medication effect for either systolic () or diastolic () blood pressure. Contrariwise, the model based on the pharmacodynamics of reserpine found a significant effect for both systolic () and diastolic () blood pressure. Conclusions. If the pharmacodynamics of a study medication are not considered when specifying statistical models, then erroneous conclusions may be reached. This trial is registered with NCT00033033. Theresa M. Winhusen, Daniel F. Lewis, Eugene C. Somoza, and Paul Horn Copyright © 2014 Theresa M. Winhusen et al. All rights reserved. Substance Use Disorders in Men Presenting to a Psychosexual Clinic Mon, 06 Jan 2014 16:33:28 +0000 Introduction. Substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Community-based studies have found a significant association between SUDs and sexual dysfunction in men, with a possible causal relation in the case of nicotine. Methods. The case records of 105 men presenting to a clinic for patients with psychosexual disorders were reviewed. Men with and without comorbid SUDs were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and familial variables. Results. 25 of the 105 men (23.8%) had a lifetime diagnosis of SUD, and 19 (18.1%) had a current SUD. The commonest substances involved were nicotine (n = 21, 20%) and alcohol (n = 9, 9.5%). Men with comorbid SUDs were more likely to report a family history of substance dependence, particularly alcoholism. Single men with SUDs were more likely to have a comorbid mood disorder. Conclusion. SUDs, particularly nicotine and alcohol use disorders, are common comorbidities in patients with psychosexual disorders. Identifying and treating these disorders in this population are important aspects of management. Ravi Philip Rajkumar Copyright © 2014 Ravi Philip Rajkumar. All rights reserved. Neuropsychological Functions of μ- and δ-Opioid Systems Thu, 26 Dec 2013 15:04:30 +0000 Brain opioid innervation is involved in many pathophysiological processes related to drug addiction. The main idea of the present review is that μ-/δ-opioid innervation is an intrinsic component of the motor/approach behavior network, which is activated synergetically with dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic network. Contribution of opioid innervation to the motor/approach behavior processing includes generation of positive emotions and inhibition of pain and stress reactions in order that the individual would be able to reach the vital goal. We cite the neuroanatomical data which showed that motor subcortical nuclei contain the most abundant opioid innervation and its activation is an obligatory component of positive emotions. In the majority of life situations, motor/approach behavior network concomitantly activates pain/stress control opioid network. Intensive cognitive activity induces activation of opioid innervation as well, and both enhancing and impairing effects of opioid agonists on cognitive functioning were demonstrated. Overall, the functioning of endogenous opioid networks may be summarized as following: NO physical/cognitive activity = NO positive emotions plus NO pain/stress control. We suppose that contemporary findings concerning neuropsychological functions of endogenous opioid system explain many controversial issues in neuropsychiatric conditions predisposing to drug addiction and neurological mechanisms of opioid addiction. Anna G. Polunina and Evgeny A. Bryun Copyright © 2013 Anna G. Polunina and Evgeny A. Bryun. All rights reserved. Active Drug-Using Women Use Female-Initiated Barrier Methods to Reduce HIV/STI Risk: Results from a Randomized Trial Mon, 23 Sep 2013 09:59:55 +0000 Background. We tested an original, woman-focused intervention, based on body empowerment, and female-initiated barrier methods, including the female condom (FC) and cervical barriers. Methods. Eligible women were >= 18 years of age, HIV seronegative, and active drug users, reporting 30% or greater unprotected sex acts. Both controls (C) and intervention (I) participants received enhanced HIV/STI harm reduction counseling. I participants underwent 5 additional weekly group sessions. We compared change in frequency of unprotected vaginal intercourse across arms at 12 months. Results. Among 198 enrolled women, over 95% completed followup. Two-thirds were African-American; most of them used crack, had a primary partner, and reported sex exchange. In paired t-tests from baseline to followup, the frequency of unprotected vaginal sex dropped significantly for I (primary , nonprimary ) and C (primary , nonprimary ) arms with all partners. The difference in change across arms was of borderline significance for primary partner (); no difference was seen for nonprimary partner (). Use of male condom and FC increased with both partner types over time, but more consistently among I women. Conclusion: The “value-added” impact of the intervention was observed mainly with primary partners. Body knowledge with routine FC counseling should be incorporated into interventions for drug-using women. Erica Gollub, Elena Cyrus-Cameron, Kay Armstrong, Tamara Boney, Delinda Mercer, Danielle Fiore, and Sumedha Chhatre Copyright © 2013 Erica Gollub et al. All rights reserved. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students’ Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan Wed, 18 Sep 2013 08:10:49 +0000 This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results. Shao-I Chiu, Fu-Yuan Hong, and Su-Lin Chiu Copyright © 2013 Shao-I Chiu et al. All rights reserved. Parent and Peer Influence on Recreational Use of Pain Medication: Are Their Influences Similar to That of Marijuana Use? Wed, 28 Aug 2013 13:52:07 +0000 Parent and peer disapproval were examined as potential predictors of recreational use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription pain medication. Risk perception was studied as a potential mediator of the effects of parent and peer disapproval. Four hundred and sixty-five college students (, ) were recruited between September 2009 and September 2010. Participants completed an online survey about their recreational medication use, other substance use, and correlates of use. Path analyses showed that predictors of OTC and prescription pain medication recreational use are largely similar to predictors of marijuana use in college students such that risk perception mediated both the effect of parent and peer disapproval on dichotomous misuse, and peer disapproval had a significant direct effect on dichotomous misuse. Prevention interventions for recreational use of pain medication should target risk perception and peer disapproval. Sasha Fleary, Aaron Taylor, Robert W. Heffer, and E. Lisako McKyer Copyright © 2013 Sasha Fleary et al. All rights reserved. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling Sun, 25 Aug 2013 14:43:38 +0000 Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. Peter Ferentzy, W. J. Wayne Skinner, and Flora I. Matheson Copyright © 2013 Peter Ferentzy et al. All rights reserved. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions Sat, 24 Aug 2013 14:02:30 +0000 This study explored Korean American women’s experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one’s destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (, ). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. Sun S. Kim, Seongho Kim, Gregory Seward, Lisa Fortuna, and Sherry A. McKee Copyright © 2013 Sun S. Kim et al. All rights reserved. The Destructive Capacity of Drug Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society Wed, 17 Jul 2013 08:09:29 +0000 From a public health perspective, substance abuse has long been a source of major concern, both for the individual’s health and for wider society as a whole. The UK has the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. In particular, it has comparatively high rates of heroin and crack cocaine use. Substances that are considered harmful are strictly regulated according to a classification system that takes into account the harms and risks of taking each drug (see the tables) (Nutt et al. (2007)). The adverse effects of drug abuse can be thought of in three parts that together determine the overall harm in taking it: (1) the direct physical harm of the substance to the individual user, (2) the tendency of the drug to induce dependence, and (3) the effect of abuse of the drug on families, communities, and society (Gable (2004, 1993)). In this report, we discuss published evidence relating to the harm of substance misuse and consider the neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms behind addiction in an attempt to gain an improved picture of the potential devastation that abuse of these substances may evoke. Thomas Peter Fox, Govind Oliver, and Sophie Marie Ellis Copyright © 2013 Thomas Peter Fox et al. All rights reserved. Control over Drug Acquisition, Preparation, and Injection: Implications for HIV and HCV Risk among Young Female Injection Drug Users Mon, 03 Jun 2013 17:05:42 +0000 Young female injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV/HCV, and initiating the use of a new drug may confer additional and unexpected risks. While gender differences in the social context of injection drug use have been identified, it is unknown whether those differences persist during the initiation of a new drug. This mixed-methods study examined the accounts of 30 young female IDUs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2004 to 2006, who described the social context of initiating injection drug use and initiating ketamine injection. The analysis aimed to understand how the social context of young women’s injection events contributes to HIV/HCV risk. Women’s initiation into ketamine injection occurred approximately 2 years after their first injection of any drug. Over that time, women experienced changes in some aspects of the social context of drug injection, including the size and composition of the using group. A significant proportion of women described injection events characterized by a lack of control over the acquisition, preparation, and injection of drugs, as well as reliance on friends and sexual partners. Findings suggest that lack of control over drug acquisition, preparation, and injection may elevate women’s risk; these phenomena should be considered as a behavioral risk factor when designing interventions. Karla D. Wagner, Jennifer Jackson Bloom, Susan Dodi Hathazi, Bill Sanders, and Stephen E. Lankenau Copyright © 2013 Karla D. Wagner et al. All rights reserved. Older Adults and Substance-Related Disorders: Trends and Associated Costs Wed, 24 Apr 2013 15:01:16 +0000 Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the changing service profile of older adults receiving substance abuse services over the past decade and the increased costs of treating this population. Design and Methods. Medicaid claims for mental health and substance abuse services data from a medium sized county in an eastern state were analyzed for individuals aged 50 years and older in calendar year 2000 or 2009. Univariate statistics are presented to describe the substance abuse and mental health services used by older adults in these two years. Results. The number of low-income older adults who accessed services for treatment and who had a substance-related diagnosis grew from 545 individuals in 2000 to 1,653 individuals in 2009. Costs for services utilized by older adults with a substance-related diagnosis rose by 358% from $2.1 million in 2000 to $9.5 million in 2009. Implications. The increase in the number of low-income older adults with a substance-related disorder and the concomitant rise in total spending for Medicaid reimbursed services indicate that local and state social service providers need to prepare for an older adult population who will need appropriate substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. Daniel Rosen, Emily Heberlein, and Rafael J. Engel Copyright © 2013 Daniel Rosen et al. All rights reserved. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Thu, 18 Apr 2013 10:49:45 +0000 At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. Steve Sussman Copyright © 2013 Steve Sussman. All rights reserved. The Choice of Screening Instrument Matters: The Case of Problematic Cannabis Use Screening in Spanish Population of Adolescents Tue, 04 Dec 2012 11:52:00 +0000 The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments’ items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. Danica Thanki, Antónia Domingo-Salvany, Gregorio Barrio Anta, Amparo Sánchez Mañez, Noelia Llorens Aleixandre, Josep Maria Suelves, Begoña Brime Beteta, and Julián Vicente Copyright © 2013 Danica Thanki et al. All rights reserved. Male Adolescent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature Wed, 28 Nov 2012 09:52:14 +0000 Approximately, one-third of male adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD) also have an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This strongly suggests that ADHD is a major risk factor for the development of SUD which practitioners must address if they are to provide adequate treatment for adolescents with SUD/ADHD. This paper supports a causal role for ADHD in the development of SUD and examines the developmental mechanisms whereby ADHD increases risk for SUD. These mechanisms include increased risk for conduct disorder, academic failure, deviant peer affiliation, engaging in risk behaviors, and self-medication. Assessment and treatment recommendations for those comorbid for SUD/ADHD are provided. Robert Eme Copyright © 2013 Robert Eme. All rights reserved. Significant Others, Knowledge, and Belief on Smoking as Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Italian Adolescents Tue, 27 Nov 2012 09:20:18 +0000 Tobacco use is dramatically increasing among youth. Growing attention has been addressed towards possible predictors of smoking in such a population. We evaluated a sample of Italian adolescents to verify whether adults and peers might influence their smoking status. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 schools of North Italy. Data were collected from 2001 to 2010 by means of a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data and individual/social possible predictors of smoking. 2,444 students (56.7% boys; 43.3% girls; mean = 14.32 ± 1.384 years) were analysed. 607 (24.8%) were current smokers; 1,837 (75.2%) were nonsmokers. The presence of smokers in the family, seeing teachers who smoke, the influence of friends, and the feeling of inferiority were predictors of youth smoking as well as unawareness of nicotine dangerous action to health. Running the logistic multivariate analysis with all the variables listed above in the same model, the strongest predictors of smoking were as follows: being unaware that pipe/cigar is harmful to health as cigarettes; not knowing that passive smoking is harmful to the growth of children; having seen teachers smoking. The present findings help to identify the variables that might favour smoking in youth. Such variables should become the target of prevention programs. Fiammetta Cosci, Vincenzo Zagà, Giuly Bertoli, and Aquilele Campiotti Copyright © 2013 Fiammetta Cosci et al. All rights reserved. What Aspect of Dependence Does the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence Measure? Tue, 27 Nov 2012 08:40:53 +0000 Although the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) are widely used, there is a uncertainty regarding what is measured by these scales. We examined associations between these instruments and items assessing different aspects of dependence. Adult current smokers (, mean age 33.3 years, 61.9% female) completed a web-based survey comprised of items related to demographics and smoking behavior plus (1) the FTND and HSI; (2) the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) with subscales measuring Withdrawal, Psychological Dependence, and Cue-Induced Cravings; (3) 6 questions tapping smokers’ wanting, craving, or needing experiences in response to withdrawal and the latency to each experience during abstinence; (4) 3 items concerning how smokers prepare to cope with periods of abstinence. In regression analyses the Withdrawal subscale of the AUTOS was the strongest predictor of FTND and HSI scores, followed by taking precautions not to run out of cigarettes or smoking extra to prepare for abstinence. The FTND and its six items, including the HSI, consistently showed the strongest correlations with withdrawal, suggesting that the behaviors described by the items of the FTND are primarily indicative of a difficulty maintaining abstinence because of withdrawal symptoms. Joseph R. DiFranza, Robert J. Wellman, Judith A. Savageau, Ariel Beccia, W. W. Sanouri A. Ursprung, and Robert McMillen Copyright © 2013 Joseph R. DiFranza et al. All rights reserved. Deficits of Affect Mentalization in Patients with Drug Addiction: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects Sun, 11 Nov 2012 10:40:28 +0000 Traditionally treated with wariness, drug addictions have provoked a serious interest in psychodynamically oriented clinicians in recent decades. This paper discusses the development of contemporary psychodynamic conceptualizations of addictions, focusing specifically on mentalization-based theories. The concept of mentalization refers to a complex form of self-regulation which includes attribution of psychological meaning to one’s own behavior and affective states, as well as those of the others. We hypothesize that drug-addicted patients have severe impairments in mentalizing, associated with developmental deficits, characteristic for the borderline personality disorder and psychosomatic conditions. Psychodynamic models of mentalization and their corresponding research operationalizations are reviewed, and implications for a contemporary understanding of drug addictions and psychotherapy are drawn. The authors propose that mentalization-oriented theories provide an adequate conceptualization, which is open to empirical testing and has clear and pragmatic guidelines for treatment. Svetoslav Savov and Nikola Atanassov Copyright © 2013 Svetoslav Savov and Nikola Atanassov. All rights reserved. The Dysregulation Profile Predicts Cannabis Use in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers Sun, 11 Nov 2012 10:24:58 +0000 Background. Offspring of teenage mothers are at greater risk of early drug use. Research has identified a child behavior checklist (CBCL) profile for children with high levels of comorbid behavior problems, the dysregulation profile (DP), as another risk factor for drug use. Method. Teenage girls (12–18 years old; 71% African-American, 29% White) were recruited during pregnancy. Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10, and 14 years old (). Mothers completed the CBCL when children were at ages 6 and 10, and children who scored 60 or higher on all 3 DP subscales (aggression, anxiety/depression, and attention problems) were categorized as dysregulated. At ages 10 and 14, the offspring (50% male, 50% female) reported on their cannabis use and completed the childhood depression inventory (CDI). Results. DP at age 6 and depressive symptoms at age 14 predicted recent cannabis use in the offspring. There was a significant interaction between race and pubertal timing such that White offspring who matured earlier were at greater risk of recent cannabis use. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that it may be possible to identify a subset of children at risk of dual diagnosis as early as age 6. Natacha M. De Genna, Cynthia Larkby, and Marie D. Cornelius Copyright © 2013 Natacha M. De Genna et al. All rights reserved.