ISRN AIDS http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Emergence of Drug Resistance in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Patients from Pune, India, at the End of 12 Months of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Thu, 10 Apr 2014 08:33:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2014/674906/ Introduction. In India, 4,86,173 HIV infected patients are on first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) as of January 2012. HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is drug and regimen-specific and should be balanced against the benefits of providing a given ART regimen. Material & Methods. The emergence of HIVDR mutations in a cohort of 100 consecutive HIV-1 infected individuals attending ART centre, on first line ART for 12 months, was studied. CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA level were determined. Result. Out of the 100 HIV-1 infected individuals, 81 showed HIVDR prevention (HIV-1 RNA level < 1000/mL), while the remaining 19 had HIV-1 viral RNA level > 1000/mL. HIVDR genotyping was carried out for individuals with evidence of virologic failure (HIV-1 RNA level > 1000/mL). The most frequent NRTI-associated mutation observed was M184V, while K103N/S was the commonest mutation at NNRTI resistance position. Conclusion. Our study has revealed the emergence of HIVDR in HIV-1 infected patients at the end of 12 months of first line ART initiation. For NRTIs, the prevalence of HIVDR mutations was 9% and 10% for NNRTIs. Our findings will contribute information in evidence-based decision making with reference to first and second line ART delivery and prevention of HIVDR emergence. Rajesh T. Patil, Rajiv M. Gupta, Sourav Sen, Srikanth P. Tripathy, Devidas N. Chaturbhuj, Nitin K. Hingankar, and Ramesh S. Paranjape Copyright © 2014 Rajesh T. Patil et al. All rights reserved. Understanding the Profile of Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection: Insights from Expanded HIV Surveillance at a Tuberculosis Facility in Durban, South Africa Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:59:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2014/260329/ Background. Expanded HIV surveillance in TB patients forms part of the World Health Organization framework for strategic collaborative activity. Surveillance helps understand the epidemiology of the local dual epidemic and enables design of a tailored response to these challenges. Methods. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of anonymous unlinked HIV testing for 741 consecutive TB suspects attending an urban TB facility during a seven-week period in 2008. Results. A total of 512 patients were found to have TB. The mean age was 35.7 years, and 63% were male. The prevalence of HIV was 72.2% (95% CI: 68.2–75.9) in all TB cases, 69.8% (95% CI: 65.3–74.2) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), 81.6% (95% CI: 72.9–90.3) in extrapulmonary disease, and 66.8% (95% CI: 60.7–72.9) in those without TB disease. HIV prevalence in TB patients was higher in females than males and in younger age groups (18–29 years). The sex ratio of PTB patients correlated with the sex ratio of the prevalence of HIV in the respective age groups . Conclusion. The use of a rapid HIV test performed on sputum anonymously provides an opportunity for HIV surveillance in this high-burdened setting, which has the potential to lend valuable insight into the coepidemics. Rubeshan Perumal, Nesri Padayatchi, Kogieleum Naidoo, and Stephen Knight Copyright © 2014 Rubeshan Perumal et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Tests versus ELISA for Screening of HIV Infection: Our Experience from a Voluntary Counselling and Testing Facility of a Tertiary Care Centre in North India Mon, 07 Apr 2014 09:37:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2014/296840/ Early and accurate diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential for timely identification of patients needing antiretroviral therapy and for instituting HIV prevention strategies. The primary methodology for HIV testing has shifted from enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in recent years, especially in resource limited settings. However, the diagnostic performance of RDTs is a matter of concern. In the present study the performance of an RDT being used as the initial test in serial testing based algorithm for HIV diagnosis was compared with ELISA. Seven hundred and eighty-seven sera, tested at the voluntary counselling and testing facility employing a serial testing algorithm (based on SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 as the first test), were subsequently tested with Microlisa-HIV for anti-HIV antibodies. The first test missed 9 HIV reactive samples and also registered 5 false positives. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the first test were 77.5%, 99.3%, and 98.8% and 86.1%, respectively, taking ELISA as the standard test. Our study highlights that RDTs fare poorly compared to ELISA as screening assays and that reactive results by RDTs need to be confirmed by western blot for a positive serodiagnosis of HIV infection. Bhanu Mehra, Sonali Bhattar, Preena Bhalla, and Deepti Rawat Copyright © 2014 Bhanu Mehra et al. All rights reserved. Factors Determining Survival and Retention among HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents in a Community Home-Based Care and a Facility-Based Family-Centred Approach in Kampala, Uganda: A Cohort Study Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:13:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2014/852489/ We describe factors determining retention and survival among HIV-infected children and adolescents engaged in two health care delivery models in Kampala, Uganda: one is a community home-based care (CHBC) and the other is a facility-based family-centred approach (FBFCA). This retrospective cohort study reviewed records from children aged from 0 to 18 years engaged in the two models from 2003 to 2010 focussing on retention/loss to follow-up, mortality, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and clinical characteristics. Kaplan Meier survival curves with log rank tests were used to describe and compare retention and survival. Overall, 1,623 children were included, 90.0% (1460/1623) from the CHBC. Children completed an average of 4.2 years of follow-up (maximum 7.7 years). Median age was 53 (IQR: 11–109) months at enrolment. In the CHBC, retention differed significantly between patients on ART and those not (log-rank test, adjusted, ). Comparing ART patients in both models, there was no significant difference in long-term survival (log-rank test, , adjusted, ), while retention was higher in the CHBC: 94.8% versus 84.7% in the FBFCA (log-rank test, , adjusted ). Irrespective of model of care, children receiving ART had better retention in care and survival. W. Massavon, L. Barlow-Mosha, L. Mugenyi, W. McFarland, G. Gray, R. Lundin, P. Costenaro, M. M. Nannyonga, M. Penazzato, D. Bagenda, C. P. Namisi, D. Wabwire, M. Mubiru, S. Kironde, D. Bilardi, A. Mazza, M. G. Fowler, P. Musoke, and C. Giaquinto Copyright © 2014 W. Massavon et al. All rights reserved. The Syndromic versus Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Resource-Limited Settings Wed, 05 Mar 2014 11:13:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2014/103452/ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a severe HIV epidemic. Thus, accurate recognition and diagnosis of STIs are essential for successful HIV prevention programs in the region. Due to lack of trained personnel and adequate laboratory infrastructure in the region, information regarding the profile of STIs relies essentially on self-reported or physician-diagnosed symptoms. The main objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the syndromic diagnosis of STIs, which is often used as a proxy for laboratory diagnosis of STIs in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited settings. The study builds on previously collected data from a community-based survey in Northern Tanzania. We found no significant agreements between patient-reported STIs symptoms and laboratory-confirmed STIs tests. The reported STIs symptoms had high specificity (range = 85–99%) and poor sensitivity (range = 2–17%). Knowledge gained from our study will have significant public health implications, and can help improve the syndromic diagnosis of STIs. Musie Ghebremichael Copyright © 2014 Musie Ghebremichael. All rights reserved. Improvements in Immune Function and Activation with 48-Week Darunavir/Ritonavir-Based Therapy: GRACE Substudy Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:38:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/358294/ Objective. During the course of HIV infection, progressive immune deficiency occurs. The aim of this prospective substudy was to evaluate the recovery of functional immunity in a subset of patients from the GRACE (Gender, Race, And Clinical Experience) study treated with a DRV/r-based regimen. Methods. The recovery of functional immunity with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen was assessed in a subset of treatment-experienced, HIV-1 infected patients from the GRACE study. Results. 19/32 patients (59%) enrolled in the substudy were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). In these patients, median (range) CD4+ cell count increased from 222 (2, 398) cells/mm3 at baseline to 398 (119, 812) cells/mm3 at Week 48. CD8+% decreased significantly from baseline to Week 48 (). Proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in response to CD3+/CD28+, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed was significantly increased () by Week 12. Proliferation in response to Candida and tetanus was significantly increased by Week 48 ( and , resp.). Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2 in CD4+ cells was significantly increased by Week 12 () and Week 48 (), respectively. Conclusions. Darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy demonstrated improvements in CD4+ cell recovery and association with progressive functional immune recovery over 48 weeks. This trial is registered with NCT00381303. Christos Tsoukas, Louise Gilbert, Trevor Lewis, George Hatzakis, Ron Falcon, and Joseph Mrus Copyright © 2013 Christos Tsoukas et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV/AIDS Patients in the Upper West Region of Ghana Tue, 10 Dec 2013 18:08:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/873939/ Background. The effectiveness of ART interventions is only realized in maximal levels of adherence. A near perfect adherence level of >95% is required for the effective suppression of HIV/AIDS virus. The main objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that facilitate adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2013 at the Upper West Regional Hospital, Wa. A total of 201 confirmed HIV 1 seropositive subjects (mean age years) receiving antiretroviral therapy were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all statistical analyses. Results. Overall lifetime adherence was found to be 62.2% while medication adherence in the last six months, last three months, last month, and last week were 73.6%, 87.1%, 91.0%, and 86.0%, respectively. The study revealed a positive association between adherence to ART and immunological success, with nonadherence increasing the risk (OR (95% CI): 9.2 (3.2–26.9)) of immunological failure. Univariate logistic regression analysis of the data showed that other ailments and side effects of drug were negatively associated with adherence to ART whereas self-perceived wellness, family support, and regular followup were positively associated with adherence to ART. Conclusion. Regular attendance at followup and family support are vital factors for 100% lifetime medication adherence. Effective counseling sessions on adherence for patients on antiretroviral therapy are paramount for the realization of the purpose of antiretroviral therapy programmes in Ghana. Christian Obirikorang, Peter Kuugemah Selleh, Jubilant Kwame Abledu, and Chris Opoku Fofie Copyright © 2013 Christian Obirikorang et al. All rights reserved. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review Sat, 07 Dec 2013 13:17:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/976035/ Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. Patrick Baldwin, Roman Shrestha, Jessica Potrepka, and Michael Copenhaver Copyright © 2013 Patrick Baldwin et al. All rights reserved. Early Atherosclerosis in HIV Infected Subjects on Suppressive Antiretroviral Treatment: Role of Osteoprotegerin Thu, 05 Dec 2013 11:12:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/737083/ Cardiovascular disease is increased in HIV-infected patients. Cytokines such as osteoprotegerin are implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of osteoprotegerin in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment. We enrolled 76 patients; 35 HIV infected men on suppressive Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy with Framingham score <10%; 21 HIV negative individuals matched for age, gender, and Framingham score, and 20 subjects with Framingham score >10% as control groups. HIV positive subjects underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and heart multidetector computed tomography, whereas in HIV negative subjects, tomography was only performed in case of any abnormalities either in echocardiography or electrocardiography. In HIV positive patients, computed tomography showed stenosis in 51.4% of the subjects. Osteoprotegerin plasma levels were higher in HIV-infected patients than those in healthy controls but lower than in HIV negative subjects with Framingham score >10%. Higher osteoprotegerin plasma levels were found in HIV positive patients with grade I stenosis than in patients with grade II/III stenosis. In conclusion, in HIV infected subjects with Framingham score <10%, osteoprotegerin plasma concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis, in particular at the early stage of the process. Alessandra D’Abramo, Claudia D’Agostino, Alessandra Oliva, Marco Iannetta, Gabriella D’Ettorre, Francesco Vullo, Massimo Mancone, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, and Vincenzo Vullo Copyright © 2013 Alessandra D’Abramo et al. All rights reserved. Nonadherence Factors and Sociodemographic Characteristics of HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria Thu, 28 Nov 2013 12:27:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/843794/ Adherence to treatment instructions with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is very crucial for successful treatment outcome. However, sticking to treatment instructions pose-great challenges to HIV/AIDS patients. This cross-sectional study was on HIV infected adults attending ART clinic in Nigeria to explore nonadherence factors in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Validated structured questionnaire was administered to 221 participants. Results showed a high nonadherence rate of 85.1%. The commonest occurring factors of non-adherence were forgetfulness (53.8%), busy schedule (38.8%), side effects of drugs (31.9%), and stigma (31.9%). Males were more likely to complain from busy schedule, feeling healthy, fear of partner disclosure, long waiting period, and long term regimen. Patients with no formal education were more likely to attribute non-adherence to poor communication, side effects of drugs, and stigma. Employed patients seemed to miss their drugs more than the unemployed and artisans. The high non-adherence rate has serious implications for the control of HIV in infected individuals and management of HIV in general. Nurses should intensify efforts on patient education and counseling. Ijeoma Okoronkwo, Uchenna Okeke, Anthonia Chinweuba, and Peace Iheanacho Copyright © 2013 Ijeoma Okoronkwo et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Modern Contraceptives among HIV Positive Reproductive Age Women in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study Wed, 25 Sep 2013 09:34:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/319724/ Background. HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa are at substantial risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. In developing countries including Ethiopia counseling and provision of modern contraceptives of choice to HIV infected women including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Little is known about the existing practices and utilization of modern contraceptives among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess utilization of modern contraceptives and associated factors among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units in zonal hospitals of Tigray region, North Ethiopia. Method. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 364 HIV positive reproductive age women in all zonal hospitals of Tigray region using systematic sampling technique. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods were used to analyze utilization of modern contraceptives and the factors associated with it. Result. Three hundred sixty-four subjects participated with a response rate of 99.2%. The mean age of the respondents was (SD) years. About 46% of participants utilized modern contraceptives, 59.9% out of them used dual method. However, a significant proportion of the respondents (46%) reported that they wished to have a desire for children. Being secondary education and higher (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.17–6.95) and currently on HAART (AOR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.49–7.01) they were more likely to utilize modern contraceptive. But those women who were ≥25 years old, house wives, single, divorced, or widowed were less likely to utilize modern contraceptive. Conclusion. Results of this study revealed that the number of respondents who were ever heard of modern contraceptives was high. However, modern contraceptive utilization was still low. Additional efforts are needed to promote modern contraceptive utilization in general and dual method use in particular among HIV positive reproductive age women. Yemane Berhane, Haftu Berhe, Gerezgiher Buruh Abera, and Hailemariam Berhe Copyright © 2013 Yemane Berhane et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Serum Levels of Magnesium, Phosphate, and Albumin for HAART-Experienced and HAART-Naïve Female Patients Attending Parirenyatwa Opportunistic Infections Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:19:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/383214/ Antiretroviral therapy inhibits HIV replication, maintains health, and preserves life. However, both antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection have been reported to have short- and long-term effects on bone metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare serum bone profiles in HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy and compare them to therapy-naïve patients. Serum levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and albumin were measured in 40 female participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy, recruited sequentially from Parirenyatwa Opportunistic Infections Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe. The 40 women were matched for age with 40 antiretroviral therapy-naïve women. Magnesium, phosphate, and albumin levels were significantly higher in the therapy-naïve than in therapy-experienced patients. There was no statistically significant difference in calcium levels of the two groups of women. Evidence from this study suggests that highly active antiretroviral therapy lowers levels of magnesium, phosphate, and albumin but has no effect on levels of serum calcium. Denise Mudzinge, Tinashe Kenny Nyazika, Tawanda Jonathan Chisango, and Danai Tavonga Zhou Copyright © 2013 Denise Mudzinge et al. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in Harari National Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia Thu, 29 Aug 2013 08:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/960954/ Background. The efficacy of antiretroviral treatment (ART) depends on strict adherence to the regimen, but many factors have been identified for nonadherence. Method. To identify the factors for non-adherence to ART, a cross-sectional study was conducted on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and attending the ART service at Hiwot Fana and Jugal hospitals; it was done from October to December, 2010. Adherence was defined as taking 95% of the prescribed doses in the week before the survey. Data were collected using a standard interview questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Result. Among the 239 study participants, the magnitude of adherence to ART in the week before interview was 87%. The main reasons for nonadherence were forgetting (47.2%), traveling (18.9%), and being busy doing other things (15.1%). There was not any independent predicator identified for adherence to ART. Conclusion. Compared to other similar studies in Ethiopia, in this study a high adherence rate was found. Forgetfulness was the most common reason for the nonadherence. Therefore, the ART counseling needs to give emphasis to using memory aids. In addition, a further study on adherence rate and its determinants with multiple adherence measurements is recommended. Habtamu Mitiku, Tekabe Abdosh, and Zelalem Teklemariam Copyright © 2013 Habtamu Mitiku et al. All rights reserved. Innate Immune Evasion Strategies by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Mon, 12 Aug 2013 18:49:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/954806/ Host immune components play both beneficial and pathogenic roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. During the initial stage of viral infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. For instance, the immune cells express a number of inflammatory proteins including cytokines, chemokines, and antiviral restriction factors. These factors, specifically, interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral defense system by modulating the downstream signaling events, by inducing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), and by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and B and T cells. However, HIV-1 has evolved to utilize a number of strategies to overcome the antiviral effects of the host innate immune system. This review discusses the pathways and strategies utilized by HIV-1 to establish latent and persistent infection by defeating host’s innate defense system. Debjani Guha and Velpandi Ayyavoo Copyright © 2013 Debjani Guha and Velpandi Ayyavoo. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia Tue, 11 Jun 2013 11:47:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/324329/ Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected and examined by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration technique, and modified ziehl-Neelsen methods. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 33.7%; it was significantly higher among the study participants who were ART-naive group (45.5%) (AOR: 2.60(1.56,4.34)) and diarrheic (53.3%) (AOR: 2.30(1.34,3.96)) and with CD4 count <200 cells/μL (46%) (AOR: 2.07(1.06,4.04)). The most commonly identified parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.5%), Giardia lamblia (8.1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.0%), and Cryptosporidium species (2.2%). Conclusion. HIV positive individuals with diarrhea and low CD4 count and ART naive groups were more infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts. Early stool examination and treatment of intestinal parasites for HIV/AIDS patients is essential. Zelalem Teklemariam, Degu Abate, Habtamu Mitiku, and Yadeta Dessie Copyright © 2013 Zelalem Teklemariam et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Point-of-Care Testing for Detection of HIV and Clinical Monitoring Thu, 23 May 2013 12:21:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/287269/ Reversing and arresting the epidemic of HIV are a challenge for any country. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment remain a key strategy in the control of HIV. Technological advances in the form of low-cost rapid point-of-care tests have completely transformed the diagnosis and management of HIV, especially in resource limited settings, where health infrastructure is poor and timely access to medical care is a challenge. Point-of-care devices have proven to be easy to transport, operate, and maintain, and also lower-skilled staff is equally able to perform these tests as compared to trained laboratory technicians. Point-of-care tests allow rapid detection of HIV allowing for rapid initiation of therapy, monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and drug toxicity, and detection of opportunistic infections and associated illnesses. D. R. Arora, Megha Maheshwari, and B. Arora Copyright © 2013 D. R. Arora et al. All rights reserved. New Insights into HIV/AIDS-Associated Cryptococcosis Mon, 25 Feb 2013 12:59:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/471363/ Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients. According to the most recent taxonomy, the responsible fungus is classified into a complex that contains two species (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii), with eight major molecular types. HIV infection is recognized worldwide as the main underlying disease responsible for the development of cryptococcal meningitis (accounting for 80–90% of cases). In several areas of sub-Saharan Africa with the highest HIV prevalence despite the recent expansion of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy programme, cryptococcal meningitis is the leading cause of community-acquired meningitis with a high mortality burden. Although cryptococcal meningitis should be considered a neglected disease, a large body of knowledge has been developed by several studies performed in recent years. This paper will focus especially on new clinical aspects such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, advances on management, and strategies for the prevention of clinical disease. Spinello Antinori Copyright © 2013 Spinello Antinori. All rights reserved. Determinants of Mortality among HIV Positives after Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study Wed, 20 Feb 2013 16:09:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/491601/ Studies revealed that there are various determinants of mortality among HIV positives after ART initiation. These determinants are so variable with context and dynamic across time with the advancement of cares and treatments. In this study we tried to identify determinants of mortality among HIV positives after initiating ART. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 416 ART attendees enrolled between July 2005 to January 2012 in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia. Actuarial table was used to estimate survival of patients after ART initiation and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves. Cox proportional-hazard regression was applied to determine the independent determinants of time to death. The estimated mortality was 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 7% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively with mortality incidence density of 1.89 deaths per 100 person years (95% CI 1.74, 3.62). Forty years and above AHR = 3.055 (95% CI 1.292, 7.223), low baseline hemoglobin level (AHR = 0.523 (95% CI .335, 0.816)), and poor ART adherence (AHR 27.848 (95% CI 8.928, 86.8)) were found to be an independent determinants of mortality. These determinants of mortality have to be taken into account to enhance better clinical outcomes of ART attendees. Mitiku Teshome Hambisa, Ahmed Ali, and Yadeta Dessie Copyright © 2013 Mitiku Teshome Hambisa et al. All rights reserved. Missed Doses and Missed Appointments: Adherence to ART among Adult Patients in Uganda Mon, 14 Jan 2013 11:08:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2013/270914/ Background. Missed doses and appointments are predictors of incomplete adherence among patients on ART. The AIDSRelief model emphasizes treatment preparation and continuous treatment support for ART patients including community followup. Methods. In August 2008, a survey was conducted among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (interquartile range for duration of ART = 29–46 months, median = 33 months, , age >16 years), in 15 health facilities in Uganda. Missed doses and appointments among adult patients on ART and the factors most associated with these were identified. Reasons for missed doses were also explored. Results. The survey revealed that 97% of the patients had not missed their doses in the last week while 93% had not missed their appointments in the last three months. For those who had missed their doses, the most common reasons were travel (48%) and forgetfulness (28%). There was a significant association between missing doses and missing appointments () and between alcohol use and missed doses (). Conclusions. The level of adherence to medication and clinic appointments for patients on ART in the study population was very high. It is important to strengthen adherence strategies at both facility and community levels to assist patients that are likely to miss their doses or appointments. C. Shumba, L. Atuhaire, R. Imakit, R. Atukunda, and P. Memiah Copyright © 2013 C. Shumba et al. All rights reserved. Who Is Going for VCT? A Case Study in Urban Burkina Faso Sun, 30 Dec 2012 10:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/307917/ Introduction. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is a key element of treatment and is essential for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. Little information is available on the uptake of VCT in Burkina Faso. This study aims to assess the prevalence of VCT in urban Burkina Faso, where the epidemic is still highly concentrated. Methods. We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among 1,694 subjects living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. After informed consent was obtained, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to participants. Results. Overall, 10.2% of individuals had used VCT, while 9% were women. Among women who had a child after the launch of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), only 10.4% have been tested for HIV. Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew the main methods of prevention. In multivariate analysis, older age and being married and better educated were independent factors associated with VCT. Conclusions. Despite high public knowledge and awareness about HIV, VCT uptake was still very low and PMTCT coverage was poor. New strategies are required to increase VCT uptake in urban areas, in particular among the youngest age. Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Seydou Yaro, Paulin Fao, Marie-Christine Defer, François Ilboudo, Youssouf Langani, Nicolas Meda, Annie Robert, and Nicolas Nagot Copyright © 2012 Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou et al. All rights reserved. Conservation, Compensation, and Evolution of N-Linked Glycans in the HIV-1 Group M Subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms Wed, 19 Dec 2012 10:02:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/823605/ The “glycan shield” exposed on the surface of the HIV-1 gp120 env glycoprotein has been previously proposed as a novel target for anti-HIV treatments. While such targeting of these glycans provides an exciting prospect for HIV treatment, little is known about the conservation and variability of glycosylation patterns within and between the various HIV-1 group M subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. Here, we present evidence of strong strain-specific glycosylation patterns and show that the epitope for the 2G12 neutralising antibody is poorly conserved across HIV-1 group M. The unique glycosylation patterns within the HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs appear to explain their varying susceptibility to neutralisation by broadly cross-neutralising (BCN) antibodies. Compensatory glycosylation at linearly distant yet three-dimensionally proximal amino acid positions appears to maintain the integrity of the glycan shield while conveying resistance to neutralisation by BCN antibodies. We find that highly conserved clusters of glycosylated residues do exist on the gp120 trimer surface and suggest that these positions may provide an exciting target for the development of BCN anticarbohydrate therapies. Simon A. Travers Copyright © 2012 Simon A. Travers. All rights reserved. HIV-Positive Status Disclosure and Associated Factors among Children in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia Thu, 13 Dec 2012 16:38:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/485720/ Introduction. Clinical reports have indicated positive outcomes associated with disclosure of HIV-positive status in children. This study assessed the level and associated factors of HIV-positive status disclosure to HIV-infected children in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive children from March to April 2012. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results. Of the 428 children, 169 (39.5%) were disclosed their HIV-positive status. The mean age of HIV-positive status disclosure was at 10.7 (±2.3) years. Having a nonbiological parent (, 95% CI: 1.22, 14.04), child’s age older than 10 years (, 95% CI: 4.5, 15.53), and death of a family member (, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.6) were significantly and independently associated with disclosure of HIV-positive status to infected children. Conclusions. The rate of disclosure of HIV-positive status to infected children still remains low in North Gondar. Hence, it is important to target children living with their biological parents and having young parents and children younger than 10 years. The guideline for disclosure of children with HIV/AIDS should be established in an Ethiopian context. Digsu Negese, Kefyalew Addis, Akilew Awoke, Zelalem Birhanu, Dagnachew Muluye, Sisay Yifru, and Berihun Megabiaw Copyright © 2012 Digsu Negese et al. All rights reserved. Moderate-Intensity Exercise Improves Body Composition and Improves Physiological Markers of Stress in HIV-Infected Men Tue, 11 Dec 2012 11:55:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/145127/ HIV/AIDS and its treatment often alter body composition and result in poorer physical functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on body composition and the hormones and cytokines associated with adverse health outcomes. HIV-infected males () were randomized to an exercise group (EX) who completed 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training, or to a nonintervention control group (CON). In pre- and postintervention, body composition was estimated via DXA, peak strength was assessed, and resting blood samples were obtained. There was a decrease in salivary cortisol at wake () in the EX and a trend () for a decrease 1 hour after waking. The EX had a significant increase in lean tissue mass (LTM) () following the intervention. Those in the EX below median body fat (20%) increased LTM () only, while those above 20% decreased fat mass (), total fat (), and trunk fat (), while also increasing LTM (). Peak strength increased between 14% and 28% on all exercises in the EX group. These data indicate that 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training can decrease salivary cortisol levels, improve physical performance, and improve body composition in HIV-infected men. Wesley David Dudgeon, Jason Reed Jaggers, Kenneth Doyle Phillips, John Larry Durstine, Stephanie E. Burgess, George William Lyerly, John Mark Davis, and Gregory Alan Hand Copyright © 2012 Wesley David Dudgeon et al. All rights reserved. Diabetes and Hypertension among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment Since 1998 in Senegal: Prevalence and Associated Factors Sat, 01 Dec 2012 11:07:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/621565/ Cardiovascular risk factors in people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) are poorly documented in resource-constrained settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 to assess prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in a sample of 242 HIV-infected patients who had initiated ART between 1998 and 2002 in Dakar, Senegal (ANRS 1215 observational cohort). World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were applied to diagnose diabetes and hypertension. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with diabetes and hypertension. Patients had a median age of 46 years and had received ART for a median duration of about 9 years. 14.5% had diabetes and 28.1% had hypertension. Long duration of ART (≥119 months), older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher levels of total cholesterol were associated with higher risks of diabetes. Older age, higher BMI at ART initiation, and higher levels of triglycerides were associated with higher risk of hypertension. This study shows that diabetes and hypertension were frequent in these Senegalese HIV patients on ART. It confirms the association between duration of ART and diabetes and highlights the need to implement programs for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV patients from resource-constrained settings. Assane Diouf, Amandine Cournil, Khadidiatou Ba-Fall, Ndèye Fatou Ngom-Guèye, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Ibrahima Ndiaye, Gilbert Batista, Papa Mandoumbé Guèye, Pape Samba Bâ, Bernard Taverne, Eric Delaporte, and Papa Salif Sow Copyright © 2012 Assane Diouf et al. All rights reserved. Anogenital Lesions: Kaposi's Sarcoma and Its Mimicks Wed, 31 Oct 2012 09:07:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/486425/ Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular neoplasm associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection, and, in the epidemic form, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although HHV-8 is present in all body fluids and is sexually transmitted, there are surprisingly few reports of anogenital KS. Clinically, especially in HIV/KS endemic areas, dark stained skin patches or nodules are prone to misdiagnosis, especially in dark-skinned individuals. Therefore, a biopsy is recommended. The histologic appearance spans a broad spectrum of KS and non-KS lesions; therefore, the final diagnosis should be confirmed by HHV-8 immunohistochemistry. We report a series of 36 anogenital biopsies from a group of 16 documented HIV-positive patients; in 20 the HIV serostatus was unknown. There were ten KS (five in HIV-positive patients), and 26 non-KS (11 in HIV-positive subjects) lesions. In the era of HIV/AIDS, anogenital lesions may be the first manifestation of KS in immunocompromised individuals and should be biopsied. The histological diagnosis should be confirmed by HHV-8 immunohistochemistry. Louis-Jacques van Bogaert Copyright © 2012 Louis-Jacques van Bogaert. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer in HIV-Infected Patients from a Resource-Limited Setting Tue, 23 Oct 2012 09:15:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/494698/ Enumeration of CD4 lymphocytes is essential for the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, but it can be difficult to afford in developing countries. In this study we evaluated a reagent reduction strategy for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 cell absolute count and percentage using the FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). We compared the protocol recommended by the manufacturer with a protocol that used half of the usual amount of CD3/CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody reagent in 100 samples from HIV-infected patients in a rural hospital in India. The concordance correlation coefficient between the two protocols was 0.976 for CD4 cell count and 0.984 for CD4 cell percentage. We did not find significant bias when performing Deming regression or Bland-Altman analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 98.5% for identifying patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/μL, 98.1% and 93.8% for identifying patients with less than 350 CD4 cells/μL, and 100% and 94.7% for identifying patients with less than 25% CD4 cells, respectively. This reagent reduction strategy can be used for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 lymphocytes in high-volume laboratories from resource-limited settings. Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Raghuprakash Reddy, Srinivasulu Reddy, Praveen K. Naik, and Manoranjan Midde Copyright © 2012 Gerardo Alvarez-Uria et al. All rights reserved. Motivating Factors and Psychosocial Barriers to Condom Use among out-of-School Youths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Survey Using the Health Belief Model Thu, 27 Sep 2012 10:30:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/170739/ Condoms remain a cost-effective and relatively simple intervention to prevent HIV infection. However, condom use is still very low, particularly among youths aged 15 to 24. 348 individuals (186 males and 162 females) completed a pre-tested questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with condom use. Out of 348 respondents, 296 (85.0%) were sexually experienced, and 260 (87.8%) reported noncondom use in the past 3 months prior to the study. Among men, noncondom use was independently associated with feeling shy to buy condoms (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.12–1.34), condoms reducing sexual pleasure (AOR = 8.19; 95% CI 3.98–17.01), and HIV is a serious and deadly disease (AOR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.28–0.46). Among women, experiencing forced sex (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.10–2.78), condoms reduce sexual pleasure (AOR = 8.29; 95% CI 3.36–20.73), and inability to convince a partner to use condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.04–1.28) were predictors of noncondom use. In conclusion, sexually active youths in this population practice risky sexual behaviours, with low condom use practices. Strategies to improve condom use should address these psychosocial barriers associated with noncondom use. E. Katikiro and B. Njau Copyright © 2012 E. Katikiro and B. Njau. All rights reserved. Prevalence of HIV-Associated Metabolic Abnormalities among Patients Taking First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda Thu, 23 Aug 2012 10:46:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/960178/ Introduction. While the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased HIV-related morbidity and mortality rates in the sub-Saharan Africa, a subsequent increase in metabolic abnormalities has been observed. We sought to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated metabolic abnormalities among patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an ART clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Four hundred forty-two consecutive patients on first-line ART for at least 12 months were screened for eligibility in a cross-sectional study, and 423 were enrolled. Pre-ART patient characteristics were abstracted from medical charts, examinations included anthropometric measurement and physical assessment for lipodystrophy. Results. The prevalence of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia was 16.3% (69/423) and 81.5% (345/423), respectively. Prevalence of dyslipidemia between stavudine- and zidovudine-based regimens (91% versus 72%; 𝑃<0.001). Being on stavudine (aOR 4.79, 95%, 2.45–9.38) and peak body weight (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05–1.97) were independent risk factors for dylipidemia. Stavudine (aOR 0.50, 95% CI  0.27–0.93) use was associated with lower risk for hyperglycemia while, and older age (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11–1.56) and having a family history of DM (aOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.10–4.34) were independent risk factors for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. HIV-associated metabolic complications were prevalent among patients on thymidine analogue-containing ART regimens. Screening for lipid and glucose abnormalities should be considered in ART patients because of cardiovascular risks. Bernard Omech, Joseph Sempa, Barbara Castelnuovo, Kenneth Opio, Marcel Otim, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Robert Colebunders, and Yukari C. Manabe Copyright © 2012 Bernard Omech et al. All rights reserved. Large Epidemiological Influenza A Outbreak in a Teaching Hospital from Guatemala City Wed, 01 Aug 2012 10:44:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/638042/ Objective. To describe the characteristics and interventions to control a large epidemiological Influenza A Outbreak. Methods. During the months of February to April 2006, a large outbreak of Influenza A was detected, which affected Health Care Workers and hospitalized patients in a large teaching Hospital in Guatemala City. Interventions to interrupt transmission were implemented and included barrier methods (N95 masks, respiratory isolation measures, etc.) and enhanced hand hygiene, vaccination of healthy Health Care Workers (HCW), restrictions for patient visits. Results. From February to April 2006, 59 hospitalized patients diagnosed with Influenza A. 19 AIDS patients (mortality: 71%) and 5/40 (12.5%) in other diseases: cancer (3), severe cardiac failure (1) and severe malnutrition (1). The attack rate at day 20 in doctors and medical students was 21% while in other HCW it was 10.5%. Within 3 weeks of the beginning of the plan, deaths were stopped and no more cases in HCW were detected after 3 additional weeks. Conclusion. A rapid, comprehensive plan for the control of nosocomial epidemic Influenza A outbreaks is essential to limit severe morbidity and mortality in hospitals who attend large immunocompromised populations, including AIDS patients. HCW regular vaccinations programs are mandatory. Carlos Mejía, Monica Silvestre, Iris Cazali, Judith García, Ruth Sánchez, Leticia García, Leticia Castillo, Ingrid Escobar, and Sandra Terraza Copyright © 2012 Carlos Mejía et al. All rights reserved. Loss to Followup: A Major Challenge to Successful Implementation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa Tue, 31 Jul 2012 10:25:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.aids/2012/589817/ Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to explore how loss to followup (LFTU) has affected the successful implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 (PMTCT) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We conducted an electronic search from the following databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJs), and PyscINFO. Additional searches were made in WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Google, and Google scholar websites for (1) peer-reviewed published research, (2) scientific and technical reports, and (3) papers presented on scientific conferences. Results. A total of 678 articles, published from 1990 to 2011, were retrieved. Only 44 articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The rates of LTFU of mother-child pairs ranged from 19% to 89.4 in the reviewed articles. Health facility factors, fear of HIV-1 test, stigma and discrimination, home deliveries and socioeconomic factors were identified as reasons for LTFU. Conclusion. There is a great loss of mother-child pairs to follow up in PMTCT programs in sub-Saharan Africa. There is need for more research studies to develop public health models of care that can help to improve followup of mother-child pairs in PMTCT programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Fatch W. Kalembo and Maggie Zgambo Copyright © 2012 Fatch W. Kalembo and Maggie Zgambo. All rights reserved.