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ISRN Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 692484, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/692484
Review Article

Nanoporous Gold Electrodes and Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1001 West Main Street, Richmond, VA 23284-2006, USA

Received 9 December 2012; Accepted 26 December 2012

Academic Editors: N. Chaniotakis, D. Kara, V. A. Lemos, E. Lodyga-Chruscinska, and B. Rittich

Copyright © 2013 Maryanne M. Collinson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanoporous gold prepared by dealloying Au:Ag alloys has recently become an attractive material in the field of analytical chemistry. This conductive material has an open, 3D porous framework consisting of nanosized pores and ligaments with surface areas that are 10s to 100s of times larger than planar gold of an equivalent geometric area. The high surface area coupled with an open pore network makes nanoporous gold an ideal support for the development of chemical sensors. Important attributes include conductivity, high surface area, ease of preparation and modification, tunable pore size, and a bicontinuous open pore network. In this paper, the fabrication, characterization, and applications of nanoporous gold in chemical sensing are reviewed specifically as they relate to the development of immunosensors, enzyme-based biosensors, DNA sensors, Raman sensors, and small molecule sensors.