Table 1: The most important variables (buckets) for the differentiation of different botanical origins of honey (chemical shifts are given in ppm).

Botanical origin of honey 1H NMR 13C NMR

Honeydew/floral1.17–1.20
3.26
3.90–4.12
3.43–3.50
3.57–3.68
101.49
95.85
69.19–76.11
82.01

Coniferous3.84–3.87
3.61–3.67
3.76–3.77
4.05–4.07
4.20–4.22
5.24
62.84
69.44–69.53
71.49–71.47

Rape4.64–4.66
3.40–3.46
3.36–3.38
4.05–4.07
75.81–75.88
74.22
69.64–69.74
95.92
Clover and rape7.65–7.95
5.89
5.59
Sunflower3.25–3.27

Robinia pseudoacacia 3.69
3.75
3.43–3.44
69.24–69.75
63.96–63.97
60.81
67.64
75.89
Tilia 1.38–1.41
1.58–1.60
2.34–2.35
6.10–6.20
7.65–7.66
7.21–7.28

Chestnut4.32–4.34
5.09
7.68–7.71
7.45–7.49
71.45–71.49
60.58

Mountain honey3.88–3.9195.90
60.79–60.80
69.68

Orange tree8.13
3.88–3.91
62.75
98.08
75.49

Fruit tree flowers3.44–3.45a

aNo distinct cluster was obtained for fruit tree flowers with 13C NMR spectra.