Table 3: Results of the quantitative determination of substances by NMR (values are given in g/kg honey).

SampleHMFFormic acidPhthalic acidFumaric acidPyruvic acidL(+)-rhamnoseGlucoseArabinoseL(+)-tartaric acidFructoseMalic acidCitric acidSuccinic acid

Manuka honey0.030.15n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.2180.410.31284n.d.0.090.03
Flower honeyn.d.a0.05n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.3500.180.313570.2n.d.0.01
Sunflower honey0.050.06n.d.0.03n.d.n.d.3480.260.383790.40.490.01
Honeydew honeyn.d.0.08n.d.0.02n.d.n.d.2190.410.58314n.d.0.250.17
Chestnut honey0.060.71n.d.0.05n.d.n.d.2150.560.64350n.d.n.d.0.08
Flower honeyn.d.0.15n.d.0.04n.d.n.d.2710.490.593120.9n.d.0.1
Robinia pseudoacacia honey0.060.04n.d.n.d.n.d.0.232450.290.48381n.d.0.170.01
Orange honey0.090.06n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.2810.470.613900.250.260.02
Flower honeyn.d.0.07n.d.n.d.n.d.2.63370.260.35358bn.d.0.02
Flower honey (mountain)0.020.04n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.3180.170.38366n.d.0.1n.d.
Rape honey0.010.07n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.3490.270.39379n.d.n.d.0.03
Honey from fruit treesn.d.0.12n.d.0.03n.d.n.d.2960.880.44338n.d.n.d.0.04
Flower honey0.060.08n.d.0.03n.d.n.d.2970.240.46366n.d.n.d.0.03
Flower honey0.060.09n.d.0.03n.d.n.d.3160.320.47382n.d.n.d.0.07
Chestnut honeyn.d.0.8n.d.0.04n.d.n.d.2410.650.74395n.d.0.190.18
Honeydew honey0.030.11n.d.0.04n.d.n.d.2590.520.66352n.d.0.280.28
Flower honey0.030.11n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.2600.340.54406n.d.n.d.0.03
Eucalyptus honey0.060.1n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.3021.720.453460.28n.d.0.06
Flower honeyn.d.0.63n.d.n.d.1.45n.d.2150.650.59380n.d.n.d.0.05
Flower honey with jelly Royal0.030.05n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.3150.40.46368b0.170.02

aNot detectable (0.03 g/kg (phthalic acid and malic acid), 0.02 g/kg (HMF and fumaric acid), 0.18 g/kg (pyruvic acid), 0.16 g/kg (L(+)-rhamnose), 0.04 (citric acid), and 0.01 g/kg (succinic acid)).
bOverlapped signal, direct quantification is not possible.