ISRN Anatomy The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Variations in the Position and Length of the Vermiform Appendix in a Black Kenyan Population Wed, 30 Apr 2014 13:59:09 +0000 Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27%) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4%). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 ± 23.6 mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1%), 9 (18.8%), and 14 (29.2%) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy. Philip Mwachaka, Hemed El-busaidy, Simeon Sinkeet, and Julius Ogeng’o Copyright © 2014 Philip Mwachaka et al. All rights reserved. Neural Structures within Human Meniscofemoral Ligaments: A Cadaveric Study Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:24:33 +0000 Aim. To investigate the existence of neural structures within the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) of the human knee. Methods. The MFLs from 8 human cadaveric knees were harvested. 5 μm sections were H&E-stained and examined under light microscopy. The harvested ligaments were then stained using an S100 monoclonal antibody utilising the ABC technique to detect neural components. Further examination was performed on 60–80 nm sections under electron microscopy. Results. Of the 8 knees, 6 were suitable for examination. From these both MFLs existed in 3, only anterior MFLs were present in 2, and an isolated posterior MFL existed in 1. Out of the 9 MFLs, 4 demonstrated neural structures on light and electron microscopy and this was confirmed with S100 staining. The ultrastructure of these neural components was morphologically similar to mechanoreceptors. Conclusion. Neural structures are present in MFLs near to their meniscal attachments. It is likely that the meniscofemoral ligaments contribute not only as passive secondary restraints to posterior draw but more importantly to proprioception and may therefore play an active role in providing a neurosensory feedback loop. This may be particularly important when the primary restraint has reduced function as in the posterior cruciate ligament—deficient human knee. Chinmay M. Gupte, Daniel A. Shaerf, Ann Sandison, Anthony M. J. Bull, and Andrew A. Amis Copyright © 2014 Chinmay M. Gupte et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Structure and Disposition of the Air Conducting and Gas Exchange Conduits of the Avian Lung: The Domestic Duck (Cairina moschata) Wed, 05 Feb 2014 12:46:48 +0000 The anatomy of the domestic duck lung was studied macroscopically, by casting and by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The lung had four categories of secondary bronchi (SB), namely, the medioventral (MV, 4-5), laterodorsal (LD, 6–10), lateroventral (LV, 2–4), and posterior secondary bronchi (PO, 36–44). The neopulmonic parabronchi formed an intricate feltwork on the ventral third of the lung and inosculated those from the other SB. The lung parenchyma was organized into cylindrical parabronchi separated by thin septa containing blood vessels. Atria were shallow and well-fortified by epithelial ridges reinforced by smooth muscle bundles and gave rise to 2–6 elongate infundibulae. Air capillaries arose either directly from the atria or from infundibulae and were tubular or globular in shape with thin interconnecting branches. The newly described spatial disposition of the conducting air conduits closely resembles that of the chicken. This remarkable similarity between the categories, numbers, and 3D arrangement of the SB in the duck and chicken points to a convergence in function-oriented design. To illuminate airflow dynamics in the avian lung, precise directions of airflow in the various categories of SB and parabronchi need to be characterized. A. N. Makanya, B. M. Kavoi, and V. Djonov Copyright © 2014 A. N. Makanya et al. All rights reserved. A New Insight into the Morphology of the Human Liver: A Cadaveric Study Tue, 24 Dec 2013 14:45:09 +0000 Background. Day to day advances in the fields of radiology like sonography and CT need to revive interest in the cadaveric study of morphological features of liver, as the accessory fissures are a potential source of diagnostic errors. Accessory fissures vary from single to multiple over different parts of the liver. Aim. In the present study the morphological features of human liver specimens were evaluated by macroscopic examination and morphometric analysis. Methods. The study was conducted on 58 specimens obtained from cadavers utilized for routine dissection for medical undergraduates from the year 2004 to 2012 in the Anatomy Department of MIMS Medical College. Results. In the present study the livers as described in the established anatomical literature with normal surfaces, fissures, and borders were considered normal. Out of the 58 specimens, 24 were normal without any accessory fissures or lobes and with normal contours. Two specimens were with hypoplastic left lobes. Lingular process of left lobe was observed in only one specimen. Conclusions. Knowledge of the various accessory fissures of liver prevents misdiagnosis of cystic lesions or any pathological lesions of the liver. Sunitha Vinnakota and Neelee Jayasree Copyright © 2013 Sunitha Vinnakota and Neelee Jayasree. All rights reserved. Study of Sural Nerve Complex in Human Cadavers Mon, 16 Dec 2013 09:55:41 +0000 Aim. The sural nerve complex (SNC) consists of four named components: medial sural cutaneous nerve (MSCN), lateral sural cutaneous nerve (LSCN), peroneal communicating nerve (PCN), and sural nerve (SN). The formation and distribution of the sural nerve vary in different individuals. SN is universally recognized by surgeons as a site for harvesting an autologous nerve graft. The nerve is widely used for electrophysiological studies. Hence the study of sural nerve complex was taken up. Method. SNC was observed by dissecting 100 lower limbs in the department of anatomy at three different medical colleges, over a period of 10 years. Result. Typical SN was observed in 60% of the cases. MSCN was present in all the cases; in 15% of the cases the MSCN followed an intramural course. LSCN was present in 80% of the cases. PCN was present in 70% of the cases and in most of the cases calibre was larger than that of MSCN. Conclusion. The knowledge about the variation in the origin and course of the SN is important in evaluating sensory axonal loss in distal axonal neuropathies and should be borne in mind by clinicians and surgeons. S. R. Seema Copyright © 2013 S. R. Seema. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Duodenal Diverticulum in South Indians: A Cadaveric Study Thu, 07 Nov 2013 09:52:57 +0000 Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4 cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. Sulochana Sakthivel, Kavitha Kannaiyan, and Sivakami Thiagarajan Copyright © 2013 Sulochana Sakthivel et al. All rights reserved. The Posterior Epidural Ligaments: A Cadaveric and Histological Investigation in the Lumbar Region Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:38:18 +0000 Purpose. Incidental durotomy is a relatively common complication for patients undergoing posterior spinal surgery. Delineating anatomical variants in the posterior lumbar spinal canal is crucial in reducing future rates of incidental durotomy. Materials and Methods. The ligamentous attachments between the dura mater and ligamentum flavum in the lumbar region of 17 soft-fixed cadavers were investigated. The lumbar vertebral columns were removed, and cross-sectional dissection was performed at levels L1-S1. Anterior retraction of the dorsal dura mater identified attachments between the dorsal surface of the dura mater and the ligamentum flavum. Histological staining of the ligamentous attachments was carried out with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and elastic van Gieson (EVG). Results. Posterior epidural ligaments were present in 9 (52.9%) cadavers. Nine (9) separate ligaments were identified in these cadavers, with 3 (33.3%) at L3/L4, 5 (55.5%) at L4/L5, and 1 (11.1%) at L5/S1. Histology confirmed the presence of poorly differentiated collagen-based connective tissue, distinct from the normal anatomy. Conclusions. This study confirms the presence of multiple dorsomedial posterior epidural ligaments at the main sites for posterior spinal surgery (L3-S1). An intraoperative awareness of the variability of such connections may be an important step in reducing static rates of incidental durotomy. M. J. Connor, S. Nawaz, V. Prasad, S. Mahir, R. Rattan, J. Bernard, and P. J. Adds Copyright © 2013 M. J. Connor et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Variations of Lumbar Arteries and Their Clinical Implications: A Cadaveric Study Thu, 12 Sep 2013 12:10:17 +0000 Lumbar arteries arise from the abdominal aorta. Some abdominal and spinal surgeries can damage these arteries, and that can lead to serious consequences. This study aimed at studying the types and frequencies of variations of lumbar vasculature. We dissected both sides of 109 adult human cadavers and studied the variations of lumbar vasculature. Age range was 43–90 years. Fifty-seven percent were males and 43% were females. The number of lumbar arteries arising from either side of the abdominal aorta varied between 3 and 5 pairs. The lumbar arteries arose from a common single stem in 12% of the cadavers. The third and fourth pairs of lumbar arteries arose from a common single stem in 3% and 11% of cadavers, respectively, and the first and second pairs of lumbar arteries arose from a common single stem in 1% and 2% of cadavers, respectively. The first and second lumbar arteries on the right side traveled anterior to the right crus of the diaphragm in 7% and 8% of cadavers, respectively. There were several variations with regard to the number, origin from the abdominal aorta, and pathway of lumbar arteries from what is described in the literature. Aranjan Lionel Karunanayake and Arunasalam Pathmeswaran Copyright © 2013 Aranjan Lionel Karunanayake and Arunasalam Pathmeswaran. All rights reserved. Anatomical Variations in the Branching Pattern of Human Aortic Arch: A Cadaveric Study from Central India Thu, 12 Sep 2013 09:44:57 +0000 Variations of the branches of aortic arch are due to alteration in the development of certain branchial arch arteries during embryonic period. Knowledge of these variations is important during aortic instrumentation, thoracic, and neck surgeries. In the present study we observed these variations in fifty-two cadavers from Indian populations. In thirty-three (63.5%) cadavers, the aortic arch showed classical branching pattern which includes brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery. In nineteen (36.5%) cadavers it showed variations in the branching pattern, which include the two branches, namely, left subclavian artery and a common trunk in 19.2% cases, four branches, namely, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 15.3% cases, and the three branches, namely, common trunk, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 1.9% cases. Virendra Budhiraja, Rakhi Rastogi, Vaishali Jain, Vishal Bankwar, and Shiv Raghuwanshi Copyright © 2013 Virendra Budhiraja et al. All rights reserved. Review of Bicipital Groove Morphology and Its Analysis in North Indian Population Thu, 12 Sep 2013 09:10:11 +0000 The variant morphometry of bicipital groove is reported to be associated with pathologies of biceps tendon and is useful in surgical procedures in this region. The pathologies of biceps tendon are frequent causes of shoulder pain. Therefore, under the condition of paucity of data pertaining to north Indians, not only morphometric analysis of bicipital groove and a new definition of narrow/shallow groove to provide logical explanation for dependence of pathologies of biceps tendon on groove morphology is done but also a review of the literature has been carried out. Various dimensions such as lengths of medial and lateral walls, width, depth, medial wall, and opening angles including incidence of supratubercular ridge of bicipital groove from 101 humerii are 23 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 8 ± 2, 6 ± 1, 48.91 ± 10.31, 82.20 ± 22.62, and 37%, respectively. The average height along with average width of biceps tendon and average width along with average depth of bicipital groove from two cadavers are 1.8, 10.5, 11.3, and 5.5 mm, respectively. The knowledge of bicipital groove will be of paramount importance to anatomists for new data, for orthopaedic surgeons in carrying out surgical procedures in this region, and for physicians in the management of anterior shoulder pain in north Indian population. Singh Rajani and Singh Man Copyright © 2013 Singh Rajani and Singh Man. All rights reserved. Crista Terminalis, Musculi Pectinati, and Taenia Sagittalis: Anatomical Observations and Applied Significance Tue, 13 Aug 2013 14:02:08 +0000 Background. The complex architecture of the right atrium, crista terminalis (CT), and the musculi pectinati (MP) poses enormous challenges in electrophysiology and cardiac conduction. Few studies have been undertaken to substantiate the gross features of MP, in relation to the CT, but there is still scarcity of data regarding this. We tried to reinvestigate the gross arrangement of muscle bundles in the right atrium. Methods. Utilizing 151 human hearts and orientation of MP and its variations and relationship to the CT were investigated along with taenia sagittalis (TS). Patterns of MP were grouped in 6 categories and TS under three groups. Result. A plethora of variations were observed. Analysis of all the specimen revealed that 68 samples (45%) were of type 1 category and 27 (18%) fell into type 2 category. Prominent muscular columns were reported in 12 samples (8%). 83 samples (55%) presented with a single trunk of TS. Multiple trunks of TS were reported in 38 samples (25%). Conclusion. Samples with type 6 MP and type B/type C TS, which have a more complex arrangement of fibers, have a tendency to be damaged during cardiac catheterization. Nonetheless, the area as a whole is extremely significant considering the pragmatic application during various cardiac interventions. Abu Ubaida Siddiqui, Syed Rehan Hafiz Daimi, Kusum Rajendra Gandhi, Abu Talha Siddiqui, Soumitra Trivedi, Manisha B. Sinha, and Mrithunjay Rathore Copyright © 2013 Abu Ubaida Siddiqui et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Metopism in Dry Crania of Adult Brazilians Sun, 04 Aug 2013 13:21:32 +0000 The metopic suture is located between the tubercles of the frontal bone. There are divergences regarding the exact time at which it closes, which ranges from the first to the tenth year of life, although it may persist into adulthood. This study was conducted on 134 dry crania from adult Brazilians, of which 95 were male and 39 were female. These were available in the anatomy laboratories of higher education institutions in Maceió, AL, Brazil. All the crania were examined macroscopically with regard to the presence (metopism: M) on absence of the metopic suture. M was considered to be complete (Mc) when it continued uninterruptedly from the nasium to the bregma and incomplete (Mi) when it was not present over its entire length. It was observed that Mc was present in 4.48% (6/134) of the skull examined, of which 50% (3/134) were male and 50% (3/134) were female. An incomplete metopic suture was found in 5.22% (7/144) of the crania and more frequently among males (3.73%; 5/134). Among the crania with a metopic suture, the dolichocephalic type predominated (7.46%) in relation to brachycephalic crania (1.49%) and mesocephalic crania (0.74%). There was no predominance of metopism between the sexes, while an incomplete metopic suture was slightly more common among males. Ivan do Nascimento da Silva, Katharina Jucá de Moraes Fernandes, Antônio José Casado Ramalho, Rodrigo Freitas Monte Bispo, Célio Fernando de Sousa Rodrigues, and José Aderval Aragão Copyright © 2013 Ivan do Nascimento da Silva et al. All rights reserved. The Sagittal Pelvic Thickness: A Determining Parameter for the Regulation of the Sagittal Spinopelvic Balance Wed, 24 Jul 2013 09:16:44 +0000 Objective. To propose and validate a dimensional parameter, the sagittal pelvic thickness (SPT) (distance between the middle point of the upper sacral plate and the femoral heads axis, expressed as a ratio with the length of the upper plate of S1: (SPT/S1) for the analysis of the sagittal balance of the pelvispinal unit. Methods. The parameters were analysed on standing radiographic imaging and compared for normal, low back pain, children, and spondylolysis cases. Results. Values of SPT/S1 were observed significantly higher in high grade spondylolysis populations and in children (3,5 and 3,7) than in normal population (3,3). A geometrical connection with the classical angular parameters validated SPT/S1. Conclusion. SPT/S1 was considered reflecting the lever arm of action of spinopelvic muscles and ligaments and describing the ability of a subject to compensate a sagittal unbalance. It was proposed as an anatomical and functional pelvic parameter. Legaye Jean Copyright © 2013 Legaye Jean. All rights reserved. Role of Neuronal Apoptosis in Volumetric Change of Hippocampus in Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: A Predictive Model Sun, 21 Jul 2013 09:43:23 +0000 Background. Neuronal apoptosis is the major cause of diabetes central neuropathy, but its role in volumetric changes of hippocampus has not been clarified. The aims of this study were to assess the role of apoptosis in volumetric changes of dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 region of hippocampus and to determine a reference point in which these neuropathological changes reach a meaningful level. Methods and Materials. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats () by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Six weeks after diabetes, verification animals were divided into four groups as follows: diabetic treated with insulin (3–5 U), diabetic treated with vitamin C (80 mg/kg), and diabetic and control groups. At the end of 8 weeks, numerical density of apoptotic neurons and volume of dentate gyrus and CA3 were calculated by stereological methods. Results. The number of apoptotic neurons in DG and CA3 in diabetic group showed significant level of difference in comparison with the control (). The volume of DG and CA3 in diabetic and vitamin C showed significant level of difference compared with control (). Conclusion. Our results suggest that DG and CA3 volume reduction begins and progresses independently of neuronal loss. Khadijeh Foghi and Shahriar Ahmadpour Copyright © 2013 Khadije Foghi and Shahriar Ahmadpour. All rights reserved. Study of the Location and Morphology of the Pterion in Adult Nigerian Skulls Thu, 13 Jun 2013 08:47:16 +0000 The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were  mm and  mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were  mm and  mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance. Sunday A. Adejuwon, Funmilayo E. Olopade, and Modupe Bolaji Copyright © 2013 Sunday A. Adejuwon et al. All rights reserved. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Distribution in the Anterior Hypothalamus of the Female Rats Thu, 09 May 2013 08:02:40 +0000 Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons and fibers are located in the anteroventral hypothalamus, specifically in the preoptic medial area and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Most luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons project to the median eminence where they are secreted in the pituitary portal system in order to control the release of gonadotropin. The aim of this study is to provide, using immunohistochemistry and female brain rats, a new description of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fibers and neuron localization in the anterior hypothalamus. The greatest amount of the LHRH immunoreactive material was found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis that is located around the anterior region of the third ventricle. The intensity of the reaction of LHRH immunoreactive material decreases from cephalic to caudal localization; therefore, the greatest immunoreaction is in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, followed by the dorsomedial preoptic area, the ventromedial preoptic area, and finally the ventrolateral medial preoptic area, and in fibers surrounding the suprachiasmatic nucleus and subependymal layer on the floor of the third ventricle where the least amount immunoreactive material is found. Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Agustín Castañeyra-Ruiz, Juan M. González-Toledo, María Castañeyra-Ruiz, Héctor de Paz-Carmona, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo, and Emilia M. Carmona-Calero Copyright © 2013 Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz et al. All rights reserved. Learning Anatomy: Can Dissection and Peer-Mediated Teaching Offer Added Benefits over Prosection Alone? Thu, 28 Mar 2013 12:38:09 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an optional thoracic dissection elective upon anatomy subject acquisition and determine whether peer-mediated teaching has a beneficial effect. Methodology. First year medical students’ results on thoracic anatomy laboratory examinations over a five-year period were obtained. All students were taught in the laboratory using prosected specimens as part of a standard curriculum. A subset of students from each class volunteered to participate in an optional thoracic dissection. A comparison of exam performance between the two groups was made, and the results were analyzed to see if incorporating peer teaching into the elective had an impact on the students’ performance on anatomy examinations. Results. With the exception of one year’s results, no significant statistical difference was found in student performance on anatomy examinations between the two groups. The addition of peer teaching did not result in superior performance. Conclusion. It is believed that prosected specimens are suitable for anatomy laboratory teaching in an undergraduate medical curriculum. Our study did not reveal that an opportunity for dissection offered any added benefit in terms of exam performance. In addition, peer teaching did not affect exam performance. This study strictly compared student exam results. It did not assess the possible impact of the dissection process to influence student attitudes towards death or the development of clinically relevant visuospatial abilities and procedural skills. Lynn Ashdown, Evan Lewis, Maxwell Hincke, and Alireza Jalali Copyright © 2013 Lynn Ashdown et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Insight into the Precaval Right Renal Artery: A Multidetector Row Computed Tomography Angiographic Study Tue, 26 Mar 2013 15:02:08 +0000 Variations of course and number of renal vessels are not so uncommon and their knowledge is important for planning of minimally invasive renal surgeries. The earlier literature reports a prevalence of precaval right renal artery between 0.8% and 5%. Normally, the right renal artery passes posterior to the inferior vena cava, but it can also be precaval where it passes anterior to inferior vena cava. The multidetector row contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography allows precise evaluation of renal vasculature. The aim of this retrospective study is to determine the prevalence of precaval right renal artery. Amongst 73 MDCT scans studied, we identified 4 cases of precaval right renal artery with the prevalence being 5.48%, more than what is reported in the earlier literature. We also report a single and dominant precaval right renal artery in one of the cases, which is a rare finding. On the basis of these results, we conclude that precaval right renal artery appears to be more common and so the knowledge of this variant holds a major clinical implication in preventing misinterpretation of radiological images and proper planning of interventional procedures and minimally invasive surgeries. Shubha Srivastava, Indra Kumar, C. S. Ramesh Babu, K. K. Gupta, and O. P. Gupta Copyright © 2013 Shubha Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Occipital Emissary Foramina in South Indian Modern Human Skulls Wed, 20 Feb 2013 11:28:28 +0000 An occipital emissary foramen has been traditionally described as a foramen present in the squamous part of the occipital bone at the occipital protuberance transmitting a vein that connects the confluence of sinuses with the occipital vein. The present study was done on 221 South Indian adult modern human skulls of unknown sex in the Department of Anatomy, St John’s Medical College, Bangalore, India. The foramen was observed in 21/221 (9.50%) skulls, 6/21 (28.57%) to the right of, 10/21 (47.61%) to the left of, and 2/21 (9.52%) on the External Occipital Crest. It was seen more often near the posterior margin of foramen magnum rather than at the External Occipital Protuberance as has been traditionally described. A new finding is that bilateral foramina were observed in 3 skulls (14.28%). The incidence was higher than seen in other Indian population. Since it is present near the foramen magnum in most cases, knowledge of the number and position of the foramen is important for suboccipital craniotomies. The extensive connections of the veins with cranial venous sinuses may lead to intracranial infections and vice versa. Suruchi Singhal and Roopa Ravindranath Copyright © 2013 Suruchi Singhal and Roopa Ravindranath. All rights reserved. Supernumerary Renal Arteries and Their Embryological and Clinical Correlation: A Cadaveric Study from North India Wed, 20 Feb 2013 08:20:01 +0000 Background. Classically, each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery originating from abdominal aorta. The present study aimed at its variations and their embryological and clinical correlation. Material and Methods. The formalin-fixed thirty-seven cadavers from north India constituted the material for the study. During routine abdominal dissection conducted for medical undergraduates at the department of anatomy, the kidneys along with their arteries were explored and the morphological variations of renal arteries were noted. Results. We observed supernumerary renal arteries in 23/37 (62.2%) cases (48.6% of aortic origin and 13.5% of renal origin) on the right side and 21/37 (56.8%) cases (45.9% of aortic origin and 10.8% of renal origin) on the left side. Supernumerary renal arteries entered the kidney through hilum, superior pole, and inferior pole. Conclusion. Awareness of variations of renal artery is necessary for surgical management during renal transplantation, repair of abdominal aorta aneurysm, and urological procedures and for angiographic interventions. Virendra Budhiraja, Rakhi Rastogi, Vaibhav Anjankar, C. S. Ramesh Babu, and Prabhat Goel Copyright © 2013 Virendra Budhiraja et al. All rights reserved. Branching Pattern of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in a Black African Population: A Dissection Study Mon, 24 Dec 2012 12:46:49 +0000 Background. Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and pattern of vascular supply to the left colon and rectosigmoid areas, though important during colorectal surgery, display interethnic variations. Further, these regions have notable vascular “weak points” reported to be highly susceptible to ischemic colitis. This study aimed at evaluating the branching pattern of IMA in a black African population. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven formalin-embalmed cadavers (28 Male, 27 Female) were studied. The length, branching pattern, and diameter of IMA at its origin were recorded. Results. IMA mean length and diameter at origin were  mm and  mm, respectively. IMA most frequently branched into left colic artery and a common sigmoid trunk in 23 cases while the classical branching pattern was observed in only 7 cases. Colic marginal artery was absent at the splenic flexure and sigmoid colon in 7 and 5 cases, respectively. Arc of Riolan was observed in 9 cases. Conclusion. Branching pattern of IMA shows variations from the previously reported cases which might help account for some of the untoward outcomes observed following colon surgery. An angiographic study to further delineate functionality of the arterial anastomoses in this region is recommended. Simeon Sinkeet, Philip Mwachaka, Johnstone Muthoka, and Hassan Saidi Copyright © 2013 Simeon Sinkeet et al. All rights reserved. Study of Position, Shape, and Size of Mental Foramen Utilizing Various Parameters in Dry Adult Human Mandibles from North India Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:43:16 +0000 Background. As the mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark to facilitate surgical, local anesthetic, and other invasive procedures, the present study was aimed to elucidate its morphological features and morphometric parameters with reference to surrounding landmarks. Material and Method. 105 dry adult human mandibles of unknown sex were observed for position, shape, and number of mental foramina. Their size was measured using a digital vernier caliper and statistically analyzed by mean and standard deviations (SD). Results. In most cases (74.3%), the MF was oval in shape and situated on the longitudinal axis of the 2nd premolar tooth (61% on right side and 59.1% on left side). The mean distance for the right and left sides was measured from various landmarks. Conclusion. Prior knowledge of mental foramen variations helps surgeons in planning surgery in that region to avoid nerve damage and also enable effective mental nerve block anesthesia. Virendra Budhiraja, Rakhi Rastogi, Rekha Lalwani, Prabhat Goel, and Subhash Chandra Bose Copyright © 2013 Virendra Budhiraja et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Photoperiod on Epididymal and Sperm Morphology in a Wild Rodent, the Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) Sun, 02 Dec 2012 17:30:39 +0000 The viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) is a seasonal South American wild rodent. The adult males exhibit an annual reproductive cycle with periods of maximum and minimum gonadal activity. Four segments have been identified in the epididymis of this species: initial, caput, corpus, and cauda. The main objective of this work was to relate the seasonal morphological changes observed in the epididymal duct with the data from epididymal sperm during periods of activity and gonadal regression using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under light and electron microscopy, epididymal corpus and cauda showed marked seasonal variations in structural parameters and in the distribution of different cellular populations of epithelium. Initial and caput segments showed mild morphological variations between the two periods. Changes in epididymal sperm morphology were observed in the periods analyzed and an increased number of abnormal gametes were found during the regression period. During this period, anomalies were found mainly in the head, midpiece, and neck, while in the activity period, defects were found only in the head. Our results confirm that the morphological characteristics of the epididymal segments, as well as sperm morphology, undergo significant changes during the reproductive cycle of Lagostomus. A. M. Cruceño, J. C. de Rosas, M. Fóscolo, E. M. Chaves, L. Scardapane, S. Dominguez, and C. Aguilera-Merlo Copyright © 2013 A. M. Cruceño et al. All rights reserved. Posterior Cord of Brachial Plexus and Its Branches: Anatomical Variations and Clinical Implication Wed, 26 Sep 2012 09:55:22 +0000 Background. Knowledge of anatomical variations of posterior cord and its branches is important not only for the administration of anaesthetic blocks but also for surgical approaches to the neck, axilla, and upper arm. The present study aimed to record the prevalence of such variations with embryological explanation and clinical implication. Material and Method. 37 formalin-preserved cadavers, that is, 74 upper extremities from the Indian population, constituted the material for the study. Cadavers were dissected during routine anatomy classes for medical undergraduate. Dissection includes surgical incision in the axilla, followed by retraction of various muscles, to observe and record the formation and branching pattern of posterior cord of brachial plexus. Results. Posterior cord was formed by union of posterior division of C5 and C6 roots with posterior division of middle and lower trunk (there was no upper trunk) in 16.2% of upper extremities. Posterior cord of brachial plexus was present lateral to the second part of axillary artery in 18.9% of upper extremities. Axillary nerve was taking origin from posterior division of upper trunk in 10.8% upper extremities and thoracodorsal nerve arising from axillary nerve in 22.9% upper extremities. Conclusion. It is important to be aware of such variations while planning a surgery in the region of axilla as these nerves are more liable to be injured during surgical procedures. Rakhi Rastogi, Virendra Budhiraja, and Kshitij Bansal Copyright © 2013 Rakhi Rastogi et al. All rights reserved.