Table 2: Overview of the literature summarising study outcome measures, results, and conclusions.

AuthorOutcome measuresResultsAuthors’ conclusions

Vendittoli et al. [14]Morphine consumption, Pain control, Medication-related side effectsReduced morphine consumption, pain scores, and nausea with LIAMultimodal approach offers improved pain control with minimal side effects
Kerr and Kohan [15]Pain scores,Time to mobilisation,LOSSatisfactory pain control,most walk 5-6 hrs, 71% single overnight staySimple, safe, and effective for pain management in hip and knee surgery
Andersen et al. [16]Opiate consumption,Pain control,Medication-related side effectsReduced pain (up to 2 weeks) and opiate consumption with LIA,No difference in LOSReduces pain and the requirements for analgesics after hip replacement
Busch et al. [17]PCA consumption, Pain controlReduced PCA requirements first 24 hrs and pain scores 4 hrs, No difference in LOSReduces requirements for PCA and improves satisfaction
Essving et al. [18]Analgesic consumption, Pain control, LOSReduced analgesic consumption and pain scores, Shorter time to home readiness but no difference in LOSExcellent pain relief, lower morphine consumption and shorter time to home readiness
Gómez-Cardero and Rodríguez-Merchán [19]Pain scores, Opioid use, Joint function, LOSLower pain scores and opioid use first 72 hrs No difference in ROM, Reduced LOSEffective in treating pain and reducing opioid use and also reduces mean LOS without increased risk of complications
Krenzel et al. [20]Pain scores, Opioid useReduced PCA use at first 12 hrs onlyPosterior capsular injection did not improve pain or accelerate recovery after 12 hrs in patients receiving a CFNB
Andersen et al. [21]Pain in each legSignificant reduction in pain up to 32 hrsEffective, and due to simplicity, may be preferable to other analgesic techniques
Zhang et al. [22]Pain scores, Opioid use, Joint functionLower pain scores (8–48 hrs) and opiate consumption (24–48 hrs) and improved flexion (days 7 and 90) with LIA and continuous infusionContinuous LIA provides prolonged superior analgesia. It is associated with more favourable functional recovery
Chen et al. [23]Pain scoresLonger time to first narcotic rescue, Lower pain scores at first 2 hrs only, No difference in LOSContinuous intra-articular infusion of bupivacaine does not provide sustained pain relief
Andersen et al. [24]Pain scoresReduced pain at first 6 hrs but not at 24 hrsEffective in early postoperative pain relief but no improved analgesia with 24 hr bolus
Andersen et al. [25]Pain scoresNo significant difference between groupsOptimal site of administration of LA cannot be determined from this study
Spreng et al. [26]Pain scores, Rehabilitation, Discharge readinessLower pain scores initially in the epidural groups. Both LIA groups mobilised faster and were ready for discharge earlierLIA is effective when compared to epidural analgesia. Ketorolac and morphine are more effective when given locally
Andersen et al. [27]Pain scores, Time to mobilisation, LOSLIA group observed reduced pain scores at 20–96 hrs, narcotic consumption, and LOS with increased early mobilisationLIA combined with intra-articular injection can be recommended in THA
Andersen et al. [28]Pain scores, Medication-related side effects, LOSReduced morphine consumption and pain scores with LIA. No difference in LOS but ready for discharge earlier with LIAProvides superior pain relief and reduced morphine consumption compared with continuous epidural infusion and Offers advantages in its simplicity and minimal risk of complications
Thorsell et al. [29]Pain scores, Time to mobilisation, LOSLower pain scores and earlier mobilisation with LIA No difference LOSLIA is better for postoperative pain relief after TKR then epidural
Toftdahl et al. [30]Pain scores, Opioid consumption, Time to mobilisation, LOSReduced pain scores during physio and opioid consumption on day 1 only, no difference LOSThis technique provides a good quality of analgesia after TKR without increased risk
Carli et al. [31]Opiate consumption, Functional walking capacity, Physical activityNo difference in pain scores but reduced opiate consumption with FNB. Physical activity and knee function improved at 6 weeks with FNBFNB is associated with lower opioid consumption and a better recovery at 6 weeks
Affas et al. [32]Pain scores,opiate consumptionNo difference in pain scores or opiate consumptionBoth provide good analgesia after TKR. LIA is cheaper and easier to perform