- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 954043, 5 pages
Tilted Bianchi Type IX Dust Fluid Cosmological Model in General Relativity
Department of Mathematics, Jaipur National University, Rajasthon, Jaipur 302025, India
Received 21 October 2012; Accepted 8 November 2012
Academic Editors: R. N. Henriksen and P. A. Hughes
Copyright © 2012 Anita Bagora (Menaria). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Some tilted Bianchi type IX dust fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get a deterministic model we assume that , where and are metric potentials and the fluid is pressureless, that is, . Some physical and geometric properties of the model are discussed. Also, we have discussed a special model in terms of only.
Bianchi type IX cosmological models are interesting because these models allow not only expansion but also rotation and shear, and in general these are anisotropic. Many relativists have taken keen interest in studying Bianchi type IX universe because familiar solutions like Robertson-Walker universe, the de Sitter universe, the Taub-Nut solutions, and so forth are of Bianchi type IX space-times. Bianchi type IX universe includes closed FRW models. The homogeneous and isotropic FRW cosmological models, which are used to describe standard cosmological models, are particular cases of Bianchi type I, V and IX space-times according to the constant curvature of the physical three-space, = constant, that is zero, negative or positive. In these models, neutrino viscosity explains the large radiation entropy in the universe and the degree of isotropy of the cosmic background radiation. The standard cosmological models are too restrictive because of the insistence on the isotropy of the physical three spaces; several attempts have been made to study nonstandard cosmological models [1–3]. It is therefore interesting to carry out the detailed studies of gravitational fields, which are described by space-time of various Bianchi types. Vaidya and Patel  have studied spatially homogeneous space time of Bianchi type IX, and they have outlined a general scheme for the derivation of exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations in the presence of perfect fluid and pure radiation fields. Krori et al.  and Chakraborty and Nandy  have derived cosmological models of Bianchi type II, VIII, and IX. These and many other researchers namely Uggla and Zur-Muhlen , Burd et al. , King , and Paternoga and Graham et al.  have studied Bianchi type IX space-time in different context. Bali and Yadav  have investigated Bianchi type IX viscous fluid cosmological models. Pradhan et al.  derived Bianchi type IX viscous fluid cosmological models with a varying cosmological constant.
There has been a considerable interest in spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models in which the fluid flow is not normal to the hypersurface of homogeneity. These are called tilted universes. The general dynamics of tilted cosmological models have been studied by King and Ellis , Ellis and King . Bradley and Sviestins  have shown that heat flow is expected for tilted universes. Mukherjee  has investigated Bianchi type I cosmological model with heat flux in general relativity. The tilted cosmological models with heat flux have been investigated by a number of authors namely Banerjee and Sanyal , Coley , Roy and Prasad , Roy and Banerjee . Bagora [21, 22] have also investigated Bianchi type I and III tilted cosmological model in a different context.
In general relativity, a dust solution is an exact solution of the Einstein field equation in which the gravitational field is produced entirely by the mass, momentum, and stress density of a perfect fluid which has positive mass energy density but vanishing pressure. Concerning the tilted perfect fluid models, Bradley  obtained all tilted and expanding dust self-similar cosmologies that are hypersurface homogeneous. Carr  classified spherically symmetric self similar dust models. Bagora et al. [25, 26] have investigated tilted dust magnetic cosmological models.
Motivated by the situations discussed above, in this paper we shall focus on the problem tilted Bianchi type IX cosmological models with dust fluid, and we investigated dust cosmological model. To get the deterministic model, we have assumed supplementary condition , where and are metric potentials. The all physical aspects of the model are discussed. Also, we discussed special model in terms of “”.
2. Field Equations and Solutions
We consider the homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi type IX metric in the following form: where and are functions of cosmic time “” alone.
The energy-momentum tensor for perfect fluid distribution with heat conduction is given by Ellis  as together with
Here is the pressure and the density and the heat conduction vector orthogonal to .
The fluid flow vector has the components satisfying the condition (3) and is the tilt angle.
The Einstein’s field equation The field equation for the line element (1) leads to where () denotes the ordinary differentiation with respect to cosmic time “”.
3. Solutions of Field Equations
Firstly we assume that the model is filled with dust of perfect fluid which leads to
Secondly, we assumed relation between metric potentials as The motive behind assuming the conditions is explained as follows. Referring to Throne , the observations of velocity-redshift relation for extra-galactic sources suggest that the Hubble expansion of the universe is isotropic to within 30% [29, 30]. More precisely, the redshift studies place the limit , where is the shear and the Hubble constant. Collins et al.  have pointed out that for spatially homogeneous metric, the normal congruence to the homogeneous hypersurface satisfies the condition constant. The condition = constant leads to when the tilt angle . Here is the eigenvalue of shear tensor .
Equation (17) leads to where “” is constant of integration.
The metric (1) reduces to the following form: where , , , .
4. Some Physical and Geometrical Properties
The density for the model (19) is given by The tilt angle is given by The scalar expansion calculated for the flow vector is given by The nonvanishing components of shear tensor () and rotation tensor () are given by
Here The flow vectors and heat conduction vectors for the model (19) are given by
The rates of expansion in the direction of , , and axes are given by
4.1. Special Model I
To find model in terms of , we assume the constant . Then, we have where “” is constant of integration.
Then metric (1) reduces in the following form:
The density for the model (28) is given by
The tilt angle is given by The scalar expansion calculated for the flow vector is given by The flow vectors and heat conduction vectors for the model (28) are given by
The nonvanishing components of shear tensor and rotation tensor are given by
The rates of expansion in the direction of , , and axes are given by
The model (19) has point-type singularity at . The model starts to expand with the big bang at and stops at . The model is expanding, shearing, rotating and anisotropic in general. Since then the model does not approach isotropy for large values of . The heat conduction vectors , and at initial stage whereas as , , and . The , and components of Hubble parameters , and as . Therefore, these are decreasing function of time.
In the model (28), initially the rate of expansion is infinite but for the large time as the expansion will be completely vanished. The components of Hubble parameters are well behaved at and will become zero for large time.
For particularly at , , , , , and are all infinite and the volume is zero. This shows that model has finite singularity at .Therefore, this model starts expanding with power law expansion, and it has finite physical singularity.
- M. A. H. MacCallum, “Anisotropic and inhomogeneous relativistic cosmologies,” in General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, S. W. Hawking and W. Israel, Eds., pp. 533–580, Cambridge University Press, 1979.
- J. V. Narlikar, Introduction to Cosmology, Jones and Bertlett Publications, 1983.
- J. V. Narlikar and A. K. Kembhavi, Fundamental of Cosmic Physics, vol. 6, Jones and Bartlett Publications, 1980.
- P. C. Vaidya and L. K. Patel, “Gravitational fields with space-times of Bianchi type IX,” Pramana, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 63–72, 1986.
- K. D. Krori, T. Chaudhury, C. R. Mahanta, and A. Mazumdar, “Some exact solutions in string cosmology,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 1990.
- S. Chakraborty and G. C. Nandy, “Cosmological studies in Bianchi II, VIII space-time,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 299–308, 1992.
- C. Uggla and H. Zur-Muhlen, “Compactified and reduced dynamics for locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type IX perfect fluid models,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1365–1385, 1990.
- A. B. Burd, N. Buric, and G. F. R. Ellis, “A numerical analysis of chaotic behaviour in Bianchi IX models,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 349–363, 1990.
- D. H. King, “Gravity-wave insights to bianchi type-IX universes,” Physical Review D, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2356–2368, 1991.
- R. Paternoga and R. Graham, “Exact quantum states for the diagonal Bianchi type IX model with negative cosmological constant,” Physical Review D, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 4805–4812, 1996.
- R. Bali and M. K. Yadav, “Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity,” Pramana, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 187–196, 2005.
- A. Pradhan, S. K. Srivastav, and M. K. Yadav, “Some homogeneous Bianchi type IX viscous fluid cosmological models with a varying Λ,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 298, pp. 419–432, 2005.
- A. R. King and G. F. R. Ellis, “Tilted homogeneous cosmological models,” Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 209–242, 1973.
- G. F. R. Ellis and A. R. King, “Was the big bang a whimper?” Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 119–156, 1974.
- J. M. Bradley and E. Sviestins, “Some rotating, time-dependent Bianchi type VIII cosmologies with heat flow,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1119–1133, 1984.
- G. Mukherjee, “A Bianchi type I tilted universe,” Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 295–300, 1983.
- A. Banerjee and A. K. Sanyal, “Irrotational Bianchi V viscous fluid cosmology with heat flux,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 103–113, 1988.
- A. A. Coley, “Bianchi V imperfect fluid cosmology,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 1990.
- S. R. Roy and A. Prasad, “Some L.R.S. Bianchi type V cosmological models of local embedding class one,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 939–950, 1994.
- S. R. Roy and S. K. Banerjee, “Bianchi VI0 electric type cosmological models in general relativity with stiff fluid and heat conduction,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 1996.
- A. Bagora, “A tilted homogeneous cosmological model with disordered radiations and heat conduction in presence of magnetic field,” Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 7, no. 24, pp. 373–382, 2010.
- A. Bagora, “Bianchi Type-III stiff fluid cosmological model in general relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 319, no. 2-4, pp. 155–159, 2009.
- M. Bradley, “Dust EPL cosmologies,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 5, p. L15, 1988.
- B. J. Carr, “Classification of spherically symmetric self-similar dust models,” Physical Review D, vol. 4, Article ID 044022, 2000.
- A. Bagora, G. S. Rathore, and P. Bagora, “Tilted Bianchi Type I dust fluid magnetized cosmological model in general relativity,” Turkish Journal of Physics, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 2009.
- G. S. Rathore and A. Bagora, “Magnetized dust fluid tilted universe for perfect fluid distribution in general relativity,” Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, vol. 2, no. 17, pp. 817–824, 2008.
- G. F. R. Ellis, General Relativity and Cosmology, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
- K. S. Thorne, “Primordial element formation, primordial magnetic fields, and the isotropy of the universe,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 148, pp. 51–68, 1967.
- R. Kantowski and R. K. Sachs, “Some spatially homogeneous anisotropic relativistic cosmological models,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 443–446, 1966.
- J. Kristian and R. K. Sachs, “Observations in Cosmology,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 143, pp. 379–399, 1966.
- C. B. Collins, E. N. Glass, and D. A. Wilkinson, “Exact spatially homogeneous cosmologies,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 805–823, 1980.