ISRN Automotive Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. SWIR Cameras for the Automotive Field: Two Test Cases Sun, 06 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.automotive.engineering/2014/858979/ This paper presents the results obtained by the 2WIDE_SENSE Project, an EU funded project aimed at developing a low cost camera sensor able to acquire the full spectrum from the visible bandwidth to the Short Wave InfraRed one (from 400 to 1700 nm). Two specific applications have been evaluated, both related to the automotive field: one regarding the possibility of detecting icy and wet surfaces in front of the vehicle and the other regarding the pedestrian detection capability. The former application relies on the physical fact that water shows strong electromagnetic radiation absorption capabilities in the SWIR band around 1450 nm and thus an icy or wet pavement should be seen as dark; the latter is based on the observation that the amount of radiation in the SWIR band is quite high even at night and in case of poor weather conditions. Results show that even the use of SWIR and visible spectrum seems to be a promising approach; the use in outdoor environment is not always effective. Nicola Bernini, Massimo Bertozzi, Pietro Cerri, and Rean Isabella Fedriga Copyright © 2014 Nicola Bernini et al. All rights reserved. A Power Buffer in an Electric Driveline: Two Batteries Are Better Than One Sun, 02 Feb 2014 16:22:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.automotive.engineering/2014/525630/ Fuel cells and high energy density batteries have limited overrated capacity and slow power response. Ultracapacitors and flywheels are proposed to overcome these limitations and to facilitate regenerative braking in hybrid and electric vehicles. The simulations presented in this paper show that a Secondary Energy Storage Unit (SESU) enhances the performance of the drivelines as previously suggested and provides additional improvements. A combined design of the primary energy source and the SESU reduces the total weight and volume and increases the battery lifetime. A full-electric driveline is simulated using a standard EPA FTP-75 drive cycle. Then the same vehicle is simulated with as SESU and the results are compared. The same is done for a hybrid driveline. Two drivelines are used as references and then enhanced with an SESU; four simulations are presented in total. Simulation results show that an energy storage device with very low energy and high power allows better battery selection and energy management. Juan de Santiago, Florian Burmeister, Johan Lundin, and Janaina G. Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Juan de Santiago et al. All rights reserved. Combined Effects of Long-Term Sitting and Whole-Body Vibration on Discomfort Onset for Vehicle Occupants Thu, 02 Jan 2014 10:01:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.automotive.engineering/2014/852607/ Occupants of automobiles experience discomfort after long drives, irrespective of how well designed a seat might be. Previous studies of discomfort during driving have focused either on the seat shape and materials (“static” properties), long-term discomfort (“fatigue” properties), or dynamics (“vibration” properties). These factors have previously not been considered together. This paper reports three studies with objectives to define and test a model for describing long-term discomfort from vibration. Study 1 was an independent measures laboratory trial using an automobile seat, which lasted 80 minutes; Study 2 was a repeated measures laboratory trial using a rail passenger seat, which lasted 60 minutes; Study 3 was a repeated measures field trial in a people carrier automobile, which involved 70 minutes of travelling. The findings showed that discomfort accrues with time but that more discomfort is experienced when subjects are also exposed to whole-body vibration. Exposure to whole-body vibration accelerates development of discomfort. The relationship between the reported discomfort, the vibration magnitude, and the exposure time can be described using a multifactorial linear model. It is concluded that ignoring parts of the multi-factorial model (i.e., static, dynamic, or temporal factors) will compromise understanding of discomfort in context. Neil J. Mansfield, Jamie Mackrill, Andrew N. Rimell, and Simon J. MacMull Copyright © 2014 Neil J. Mansfield et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Optimal Control of Continuously Variable Transmission Powertrain Wed, 01 Jan 2014 21:43:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.automotive.engineering/2014/479590/ Optimization of gear ratio with the objectives of fuel consumption reduction and vehicle longitudinal performance improvement has been the subject of many studies for years. Finding a strategy for changing gears with specific control objectives, especially in the design of vehicles equipped with Continuously Variable Transition system (CVT), which has advantage of arbitrary selection of gear ratio, has been the aim of some recent researches. Optimal control theory has rarely been used in the previous control approaches applied to such systems due to the limitations in the use of fast computational systems. The aim of this study is to design the aforementioned gear ratio change strategy and related control rules on the basis of optimal control. A driver model is also designed for the simulation of driving cycle using MATLAB Simulink Toolbar. Results of implementing optimal control rules in vehicle longitudinal movement simulation with the aim of fuel consumption reduction are finally represented. The presented method has the remarkable advantage of considerable fuel consumption reduction in comparison to other proposed approaches for gear ratio change strategies. Reza Kazemi, Mohsen Raf’at, and Amir Reza noruzi Copyright © 2014 Reza Kazemi et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Modeling of Flux-Switching In-Wheel Motor Using Variable Magnetic Equivalent Circuits Wed, 01 Jan 2014 21:43:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.automotive.engineering/2014/530260/ Flux-switching motors (FSM) are competitive candidates for in-wheel traction systems. However, the analysis of FSMs presents difficulty due to their complex structure and heavy magnetic saturation. This paper presents a methodology to rapidly construct, adapt, and solve a variable magnetic equivalent circuit of 12-stator-slot 10-rotor-tooth (12/10) FSMs. Following this methodology, a global MEC model is constructed and used to investigate correlations between the radial dimensions and the open-circuit phase flux linkage of the 12/10 FSM. The constructed MEC model is validated with finite element analysis and thus proved to be able to assist designers with the preliminary design of flux-switching motors for different in-wheel traction systems. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, and E. A. Lomonova Copyright © 2014 Y. Tang et al. All rights reserved.