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ISRN Biochemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 645983, 47 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/645983
Review Article

Metabolic Regulation of a Bacterial Cell System with Emphasis on Escherichia coli Metabolism

1Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Iizuka 820-8502, Japan
2Institute of Advanced Bioscience, Keio University, Yamagata, Tsuruoka 997-0017, Japan

Received 11 September 2012; Accepted 25 October 2012

Academic Editors: W. Antonin, C. F. S. Bonafe, and T. B. Ng

Copyright © 2013 Kazuyuki Shimizu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It is quite important to understand the overall metabolic regulation mechanism of bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli from both science (such as biochemistry) and engineering (such as metabolic engineering) points of view. Here, an attempt was made to clarify the overall metabolic regulation mechanism by focusing on the roles of global regulators which detect the culture or growth condition and manipulate a set of metabolic pathways by modulating the related gene expressions. For this, it was considered how the cell responds to a variety of culture environments such as carbon (catabolite regulation), nitrogen, and phosphate limitations, as well as the effects of oxygen level, pH (acid shock), temperature (heat shock), and nutrient starvation.